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3  1833  00729  1005 

Digitized  by 

the  Internet  Archive 

in  2014 


OF  -, 


AND    -  ,  " 










THE   A  T  IT  E  N  M  U  M 


These  rappinga,  or  echoes  from  an  unseen  world, 
as  I  call  them,  have  occurred  in  the  presence  of  the 
gentlemen  I  have  referred  to,  and  in  the  presence 
of  other  men  of  science,  in  a  clear  light,  against 
the  pane  of  a  window,  on  the  panel  of  a  door, 
abreast  with  those  present,  even  overhead,  upon 
a  wire  stretched  across  the  room,  and  beyond  my 
reach  or  touch.  They  have  taken 'place  on  the 
floor,  while  I  was  seated  on  a  swing  several  feet  off 
the  ground  ;  they  have  happened  while  I  stood 
isolated  on  glass  tumblers,  the  tloor  beneath  vibra- 
ting as  the  Tappings  sounded  on  the  carpet.  If  the 
phenomena  called  spiritual  rested  on  these  rap- 
pings  as  their  sole  evidence,  possibly  suspicion 
might  be  justified  ;  but  I  ask,  How  does  Dr.  Car- 
penter account  for  the  appearance  of  forni3  ?  These 
appearances  have  been  witnessed  by  Mr.  H.  P. 
Townsend,  Mr.  C.  F.  Livermore,  Dr.  Gray,  Dr. 
Edward  Bayard  (all  of  Xew  York),  by  Mr.  Irving 
Vanwart  (nephew  to  Washington  Irving),  and 
others  in  the  United  States. 

On  a  recent  occasion,  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  S.  C. 
Hail,  Kensington,  a  luminous  hand,  descending 
from  a  considerable  height  opposite  to  me,  seized 
a  pencil  and  wrote  a  few  words,  then  ro3e  and 
gradually  faded  away.  I  ask  what  produced  this 
phenomenon  ? 

In  conclusion,  I  repeat  my  request  that  I  may 
be  heard  in  answer  to  the  unprovoked,  unjustiti- 

nation.  Soon  a  committee  will  be  formed,  and  the 
preliminary  steps  taken.  Yet  the  best  proof  we 
can  give  of  our  gratitude  will  be  to  promote  as 
much  as  possible  the  reading  of  Motley's  writiogs, 
so  that  his  account  of  the  heroic  past  may  show  us 
the  way  to  maintain  our  nationality  in  the  future, 
and  the  spirit  of  the  great' American  historian  may 
be  a  living  power  in  the  small  state  which  he  I  . .  e  I 
so  well.  A.  C.  Loffelt. 


The  Thirty-eighth  Annual  Report  of  the 
Deputy-Keeper  of  the  Public  Records  has  just 
been  issued.  The  records  of  the  Palatinate  of 
Durham  have  now  been  completely  examined  by 
the  solicitors  to  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners 
and  the  Deputy-Keeper.  The  portion  necessary  for 
business  purposes  has  been  given  up  to  the  Com- 
missioners, and  the  portion  relating  to  the  Crown 
estates  has  been  sent  to  the  Land  Revenue 
Record  Office,  The  Calendar  of  the  Chancery 
Records  of  the  Palatinate  has  been  interrupted 
by  the  illness  and  death  of  Mr.  Burtt. 

The  second  volume  of  the   Irish  Series 
'  Fac-similes  of  National MSS. '  has  been  prini 
at  Southampton,  and  will  be  forwarded  to  I  tablin 
as  soon  as  the  colouring  of  three  plates  has  been 
completed.    The  Lords  of  the  Treasury  hare 
sanctioned  the  publication  of  fac-similes  taken 




These  rappinga,  or  echoes  from  an  unseen  world 
as  I  call  tbem,  have  occurred  in  the  presence  of  tho 
gentlemen  I  have  referred  to,  and  in  tho  presence 
of  other  mcu  of  science,  in  a  clear  light,  against 
the  pane  of  a  window,  on  the  panel  of  a  door, 
abreast  with  thoso  present,  even  overhead,  upon 
a  wire  stretched  across  the  room,  and  beyond  my 
reach  or  touch.  They  have  taken 'place  on  the 
floor,  while  I  was  seated  on  a  swing  several  feet  o!f 
tho  ground  ;  they  have  bappt-ned  whilo  I  stood 
isolated  on  glass  tumblers,  the  tloor  beneath  vibra- 
ting as  the  rappinga  sounded  on  the  carpet.  If  the 
phenomena  called  spiritual  rested  on  these  rap- 
pings  as  their  solo  evidence,  possibly  suspicion 
might  be  justified  ;  but  I  ask,  How  does  Dr.  Car- 
penter account  for  the  appearance  of  forma  >  These 
appearauces  have  been  witnessed  by  Mr.  H.  P. 
Townsend,  Mr.  C.  F.  Livermore,  Dr.  Gray,  Dr. 
Edward  Dayard  (all  of  Xew  York),  by  Mr.  Irving 
Vanwart  (nephew  to  Washington  Irving),  and 
others  in  the  United  States. 

Ou  a  recent  occasion,  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  S.  C. 
Flail,  Kensington,  a  luminous  hand,  descending 
from  a  considerable  height  opposite  to  me,  seized 
a  pencil  and  wrote  a  few  words,  then  rose  and 
gradually  faded  away.  I  ask  what  produced  this 
phenomenon  i 

In  conclusion,  I  repeat  my  request  that  I  may 
bo  heard  in  answer  to  the  unprovoked,  unjustifi- 
able attack  now  made  upon  me.  For  years  past 
I  havo  lived  in  strict  seclusion,  only  allowing  in- 
timate friends  to  visit  ;  and  now,  after  the  lapse 
of  upwards  of  a  quarter  of  a  century,  I  am  called 
upon  to  repel  slanderous  statements  made  against 
mo  by  a  person  I  had  hardly  ever  spoken  to,  knew 
nothing  of,  and  which  statements  have  been  re- 
tracted and  denied  by  the  accusant  again  and 
again.  Katharine  Fox  Jenckex. 

The  statement  that  Mrs.  Culver's  deposition 
was  made  only  six  years  ago  is  Dr.  Carpenter's. 


The  Hajcc,  Judc  3.  1S77. 
TnAT  national  disasters  seldom  come  singly 
is  a  saying  once  move  proved  true  by  the 
mournful  tidings  of  Mr.  Motley's  decease  beiug 
received  at  the  moment  when  the  august  lady 
who  so  often  honoured  him  with  her  hos- 
pitality is  at  the  point  of  death.  The  Queen 
of  the  Netherlands,  the  sincere  friend  and 
patroness  of  genius,  will,  in  all  probability,  have 
ceased  to  live  by  the  time  you  receive  this  letter. 
Her  last  davs  have  pa-ed  in  her  summer  residence, 
"Het  Huisten  Bosch,"  the  same  palace  where 


Mr.  Motley  was 
guest,  and  where  a  life-size  portrait  of 
historian  is  one  of  the  treasures  of  the  pi 
All  the  Dutch  papers  contain  detailed 
Mr.  Motley's  life  and  works,  but  what 
has  probably  been  said  also  by  the  Engl 
Perhaps  it  is  not  so  generally  known  that 
l&Dti  Mr.  Motley  visited  Holland  and  sub. 
fixed  his  residence  at  the  Hague,  Dres 
Devlin,  two  volumes  of  a  'History  of  th( 
the  Dutch  Republic'  already  evistcd 
When  investigatin-.hou-cvci-.thc  historic., 
in  Holland  and  Geimanv,  he  saw  himscl 
cnLuly  ton-make  his  wc 
published,  Mr.  Bakhuy: 
great  historian,  whose  be 
by  Motley,  edited  a  Dut. 
All  Mr.  Motley's  writing 
descendants  of  the  heroes 

v  in  Ho 



nation.  Soon  a  committee  will  be  formed,  and  the 
preliminary  steps  taken.  Vet  the  best  proof  we 
can  give  of  our  gratitude  will  he  to  promote  as 
much  as  possible  the  reading  of  Motley's  writings, 
so  that  lna  account  of  the  heroic  past  may  sho.v  us 
the  way  to  maintain  our  nationality  in  the  future, 
and  the  spirit  of  the  great  American  historian  may 
be  a  living  power  in  the  small  state  which  he  loved 
so  well.  A.  C.  IiOFFELT. 

it    When  his  bo 


The  Thirty-eighth  Annual  Report  of 
Deputy-Keeper  of  the  Public  Records  lias 
been  issued.  The  records  of  the  Palatmat 
Durham  have  now  been  completely  examine 
the  solicitors  to  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissi!) 
and  the  Deputy-  Keeper.  The  portion  necossar 
business  purposes  bus  been  given  up  to  the  l 
missioners,  and  the  portion  relating  to  the  Cr 
estates  has  been  sent  to  the  Land  Rev< 
Record  Office.    The  Calendar  of  the  Chan 

.t  Southampton,  .and 
is  soon  as  the  colour 
completed.    The  Lo 

uul  lengthened  career  of 
Record  Ottico  is  indebted  f 
:ioso  Rolls  from  the  clev< 

important  documents  relating  to  Dritish  history, 
making  a  total  of  ninety-one  volumes  so  trans- 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Russell  and  Mr.  Prendergast 

i'eiiz!  to° 
taken  undi 
end  of  Jam 
Of  the  .' 
eight  vohu 


tho  past 


to  imie; 

these  i 

'lumes.  The  high 
i  are  told,  continues 
se,  not  only  in  this  country  but  in 
uul  on  the*  Continent. 
We  are  sorry  to  observe  tho  urgency  of 
tiler  dt-mands  upon  the  public  funds  has  pre- 



vented  any  provision  being  made  a.s  yet  for  the 
new  block  of  the  Record  Repository  which  the 
Master  of  the  Rolls  recommended  to  be  erected. 
The  result  is,  that  a  considerable  number  of 
volumes  deposited  at  No.  16,  Rolls  Yard  have 
been  injured  by  the  weather,  and  the  Master  of 
the  Rolls  has  felt  it  necessary  to  press  upon  the 
Lords  of  the  Treasury  the  conversion  of  a  large 
room  in  the  Record  Repository,  hitherto  used  as 
a  copying-room,  into  a  Record -room.  This  has 
been  sanctioned  by  the  Treasury  authorities,  and 
the  change  has  been  made  accordingly. 


Cambridge,  May  29,  1S77. 

You  are  doubtless  aware  that  a  second  edition 
of  Milton's  Common-Place  Book  has  been  pub- 
lished by  the  Camden  Society.  The  former  edition 
was  very  incorrectly  printed,  a  fact  to  which  I 
called  the  attention  of  the  Director  of  the  Society, 
Mr.  Gardiner,  to  whom  (or  to  the  Secretary)  I  also 
sent  a  list  of  what  I  supposed  to  be  errors  in  the 
first  few  pages.  From  Mr.  Gardiner  I  received  a 
courteous  reply,  coupled  with  a  request  that  I 
would  complete  my  revision,  and  communicate 
the  result.  This  task  I  undertook  the  more  will- 
ingly, as  even  in  the  printed  text  of  passages  given 
by  the  editor  in  photographic  fac-simiie  I  bad 
detected  six  several  errors,  and  I  not  unnaturally 

and  did  not  know  Greek,  and  he  wrote  •• 
chrisis  or  sintlcrisis ;  and  if  the  long  limb  ef  ■  I 
h  in  sinchrisis  were  close  against  the  c,  the  printer 
would  read  sinderisis  or  sindcrisis  ;  if  he  wrote 
sindcrisis  the  c  was  ill  formed,  and  the  word 
seemed  to  be  sinderisis.  The  word  is  simply  in- 
tended to  represent  a-eyK'pto"'9;-and  the  thought 
that  the  sound  of  the  word  sindcrisis  or  si~  v.V; 
would  have  immediately  suggested  trvyKpurvi  to 
any  one  with  even  a  moderate  knowledge  of  the 
Greek  language  was  probably  the  reason  for 
editors  thinking  it  needed  no  explanation." 

This  is,  no  doubt,  an  ingenious  conjecture. 
Unfortunately,  however,  the  word  arvyKpia-ts 
has'  no  meaning  which  can  be  made  to  fit  the 
passage  quoted.  ISor  is  the  true  word  far  to  seek. 
There  is  one,  and  only  one,  Greek  compound  of 
crvv  which  can  serve  as  subject  for  the  predicate, 
"  a  natural  power  of  the  soul  set  in  the  highest 
part  thereof,"  &C;,  which  "uerer  sinneth  nor 
erreth."  It  is  obviously  the  Greek  word  for  the 
English  "  conscience,"  (rvvetBifcrist  a  word,  more- 
over which  (represented  in  Latin  characters  by 
sineidesis)  contains  the  same  number  of  letters 
exactly  as  the  faulty  sindercsis.  It  should  be 
mentioned  that  in  the  preceding  chapter  the 
Student  asks  his  Teacher  for  "some  brief  declara- 
tion of  the  nature  and  quality  of  Conscience,"'  and 
the  thirteenth  chanter  is  suunosed  to  furnish  the 


T  Jt  E    A  T  IT  E  N  M  U  M 

nc«  i  :■■  i 

Waster  ol 
Tlio  resit 
been  inju 
the  Rolls 

been  sam  l>y  the  TrtaMiry  authorities,  and 
the  chtuige  litis  been  made  accordingly. 

MILT  UN  3  1\)H.V'JN-I'L\CK  TOOK. 

fanibiiil^e,  >f»y  CO.  1S77. 

You  are  doubtless  aware  that  a  second  edition 
of  Milton's  Common-Place  Book  his  been  pub- 
lished by  the  Camden  Society.  The  former  edition 
was  very  incorrectly  printed,  a  fact  tu  which  I 
called  the  attention  of  the  Director  of  the  Society, 
Mr.  Gardiner,  to  whom  (or  to  the  Secretary)  I  also 
sent  a  list  of  what  I  supposed  to  be  errors  in  the 
first  few  pages.  From  Mr.  Gardiner  I  received  a 
courteous  reply,  coupled  with  a  request  that  I 
would  complete  my  revision,  and  communicate 
the  result.  This  task  I  undertook  the  more  will- 
ingly, as  even  in  the  printed  text  of  passages  given 
by  the  editor  in  photographic  fac-sitnile  I  had 
detected  six  several  errors,  and  I  not  unnaturally 
inferred  that  the  other  apparent  errors  in  the 
Camden  edition  were  not  due  to  the  writers  of 
the  Common-Place  Book.  In  this  supposition, 
it  now  appears,  I  was  only  partially  right,  as  the 
editor  his  shown  in  bis  Postscript  i  r  Second  Pre- 
face, and  as  appears  also  from  the  fa:-simile  of  the 
whole,  made  at  the  expense,  of  certain  members  of 
the  Royal  Society  of  Literature. 

I  had,  in  the  first  instance,  no  desire  that  my 
name  should  be  mentioned  to  the  editor,  a  gentle- 
man with  whom  I  was  not  personally  acquainted. 
This,  howtver,  had  been  done  by  the  Secretary, 
and  I  consequently  received  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Horwood,  in  which  ho  made  a  handsome  acknow- 
ledgment of  the  misprints  existing  in  the 
volume,  of  which  he  generously  undertook  to 
print  a  second  edition  at  his  own  c;st.  If  iho 
tone  in  which  he  speaks  of  me  in  hi*  second 
Preface  is  different  fpun  that  of  bis  private 
letters  now  lying  before  me — if,  on  the  whole,  the 
impression  conveyed  by  the  former  is  that  the 
"Cambridge  corrector"  was  much  of  a  pedant  and 
snmf thing  of  an  ignoramus  —  that  is,  perhaps,  a 
phenomenon  which  ou^ht  not  to  have  surprised  nie. 
Neither  have  I  any  intention  of  troubling  either 

which  I  nould  rather  invite  th.  ira'.'.o  e'.i  impion,  my 
friend,  Professor  Blackie,  of  Edinburgh.  Neither 
again  am  I  called  upon  to  prove  that  mv  correction 
of  c-ipfarU  for  c'-./i/ie-cs  is  not  itself  incorrect, 
because  I  omitted  tne  now  disused  double  breathing 
over  the  double  p.  These  are  but  small  matters, 
and  nobody  would  expect  great  accuracy  in  such 
things  from  others  than  professed  fltlieuists. 

There  is,  however,  one  curious  extract  in  the 
Common-Place  Book  which  seems  more  worthy  of 
attention.  It  is  from  a  well-known  book  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  called  'The  Doctor  and  tho 
Student,' the  thirteenth  rtnpter  of  which  has  the 
singular  heading,  "  What  .s:tio\ri.-i'o  is."  "  Siude- 
lesis,"  we  are  told,  "  is  a  natural  power  of  the  soul, 
set  in  the  highest  part  thereof,  moving  it  and 
stirring  it  to  good,  and  abhorring  evil.  And 
therefore  Sindeiesis  never  sinueth  nor  erreth. 
And  this  Sindcresis  our  Lord  put  in  man  to  the 
intent  that  the  order  of  thin--  sfn.oM  lie  observed." 
(Edition  of  1C87,  p.  4-1.)  This  passage  is  transcribed 
in  the  Common-Place  Book,  with  orthographical 
variations,  of  course  from  an  earlier  edition.  In 
the  editor's  Postscript,  the  members  of  the  Camden 
Society  are  informed  that  "the  meaning  of  the 
word  Sinderesis  also  is  unknown  to  the  Cambridge 
corrector."  It  might  have  been  added,  "  and  to 
hM  the  world  besides-,"  not  excepting  the  editor, 
who    has   seen   the    necessity   of  emendation. 

tho  first  transcriber  was  probably  a  careless  writer, 

and  did  not  know  Greek,  and  hi  wr-,,ie>  sin-  1 
Mil  or  sindcritis ;  and  if  the  long  limb  of  -tho 
k  in  sincbrisis  were  close  again-,t  the  c,  the  print/r  • 
would  read  sindoiisis  or  stndcrisis  ;  if  he  wrote  , 
sindcrisis  the  c  was  ill  formed,  and  the  word  : 
seemed  to  bo  finderisis.  The  word  is  simply  in-  j 
tended  to  represent  trrykpitr><  ;  and  the  thought 
that  the  sound  of  the  word  sindcrisis  or  sir.Jrisis  j 
would  have  immediately  suggested  o-i'yicnirrts"  to  i 
any  one  with  even  a  moderate  knowledge  of  the 
Greek  language  was  probably  tho  reason  for  i 
editors  thinking  it  needed  no  explanation." 

This  is,  no  doubt,  an  ingenious  conjecture.  ; 
Unfortunately,  however,  the  word  o-tryKpicm  i 
has'  no  meaning  which  can  be  made  to  fit  the  1 
passage  quoted.  Nor  is  the  true  word  far  to  seek.  ; 
There  is  one,  and  only  one,  Greek  compound  of  j 
avv  which  can  serve  as  subject  for  the  predicate, 
"  a  natural  power  of  the  soul  set  in  the  highest 
part  thereof,"  &c,  which  "never  sinneth  nor  , 
erreth."  It  i3  obviously  tho  Greek  word  for  the 
English  "  conscience,"  cruramjcris,  a  word,  more- 
over which  (represented  iu  Latin  characters  by 
sintidetis)  contains  the  same  number  of  letters 
exactly  as  the  faulty  sinderesis.  It  should  be 
mentioned  that  in  the  preceding  chapter  the 
Student  asks  bis  Teacher  for  "  some  brief  declara- 
tion of  the  nature  and  quality  of  Conscience,"  and 
the  thirteenth  chapter  is  supposed  to  furnish  the  . 

That  so  obvious  an  emendation  of  an  absurd 
term  iu  the  midst  of  a  grave  and  once  much-read 
treatise  should  have  escaped   its  editors,  aud  : 
escaped  Milton,  whose  knowledgs  of  Greek 
for  his  age,  considerable,  is,  on  the  whole,  a  sur- 
prising circumstance. 

But  enough  of  this.  Among  the  eighty  or  more 
suggested  corrections  in  the  margin  of  my  copy, 
there  is  one  of  some  importance,  which  is  not 
mentioned  in  the  list  of  errors  committed  by 
Milton  or  Lord  Preston  (p.  xxiv).  It  occurs  on 
p.  <1G,  where  we  have  the  words, "  Foderum,jMraf«, 
ct  mansionaticum  tributa  erant  a  Carolo  rnugno 
Italia  imposita."  It  did  not,  and  does  not, 
appear  whit  'parata'  can  mean,  iu  this  con- 
nexion. Three  different  kinds  of  tribute  are  in- 
tended, and  it  occurred  to  me  that  the  true  word 
might  be  "paravereda."  My  conjecture  was  abun- 
dantly couQ,-iied  by  the  following  parage  of 
Ducange :— "  Leges  Caroli  M.,  cap  153.  Pervenit  . 
ad  aures  nostras  eptnd  rJ  qui  Duces  man'ionatica  el  ■ 
Paravereda    ac.-ipiant    nou    solum    de    liberU  ; 

h  Via, 



I  might,  perhaps,  complain  of  having,  contrary  to 
received  usage,  been  "shown  up"  in  print  for  sup-  ' 
posed  (in  one  or  at  most  t  »vo  hist  euces  rr  xl)  errors  tn 
a  written  communication.  But  the  opinion  I  ex- 
pressed iu  writing  to  Mr.  Gardiner  of  the  manner 
in  which  tbe  book  had  been  edited  was,  I  dare  j 
say,  "severe,"  and  perhaps  I  ought  not  to  complain 
of  the  retort  courteous  to  which  my  frankness 
has  exposal  me.  But  it  is  a  little  too  bad  to 
attribute  to  me  such  "corrections"  as  l^aTov^cnj 

re,  (p.  XXV). 

The  Corf 

The  fears  excited  among  antiquaries  by 
Bill  for  the  destruction  of  useless  records  h 
been  in  a  measure  dissipated  by  the  Minute 
Evidence  given  before  the  House  of  Lords,  v.  i 
have  been  printed.  They  show  that  the  Schec: 
issued  several  months  back  has  been  ret 
sidered,  for  it  is  now  intended  to  destroy  no  dc 
ment  which  belongs  to  au  earlier  date  than 
accession  of  the  Douse  of  II  mover.  This  i 
great  change  from  the  Schedule,  on  the  very  I 
page  of  which  were  mcutioued  several  sets 
documents  which  belonged  to  an  earlier  per 
for  instance,  tho  'Calendars  of  Bails,'  fi 
1  Car.  I.  to  13  Will.  III.,  and  forty  bags 
"  Record  as  bills  against  prisoners  and  attorni 
iu  the  reigu.s  of  the  two  Charleses.  Of  cou 
tho  fixing  of  a  date  like  1714  is,,  as  Lord  Koseb 
showed,  rather  arbitrary,  and  there  is  little  do 


FOR  THE  YEAR  1875-76. 



WILLIAM  CHAPPELL,  ESQ.,  F  S.A.,  Treasurer. 





ALFRED  KINGSTON,  ESQ.,  Secretary. 






J.  R.  D ANIEL-T YSSEN,  ESQ.,  F.S.A. 


John  Milton  is  admitted  to  stand  second  only  to  Shakespeare 
in  the  roll  of  English  Poets.  Looking  at  the  numerous  testimonies 
(during  his  lifetime)  to  Shakespeare's  existence,  the  number  of  his 
plays  and  poems,  the  many  acquaintances  whom  his  mere  profession 
must  necessarily  have  forced  upon  him,  the  friends  whom  his  un- 
doubted genial  nature  must  have  secured,  and  the  various  business 
transactions  in  which  he  must  have'  engaged  before  being  able  to 
accumulate  the  competence  on  which  he  retired  to  the  country, 
it  seems  strange  that  six  or  seven  signatures  are  all  that  remain  ot 
the  actual  writing  of  him  who,  in  literature,  is  England's  chief 
glory.  But  looking  at  these  signatures,  and  considering  the  tradi- 
tions about  Shakespeare's  youth,  it  may  be  doubted  if  he  was  ever 
a  good  penman:  transcripts  by  other  persons  of  his  rough  drafts 
would  serve  for  the  Play  House  and  the  Press,  and  his  business 
transactions  were  most  likely  effected  by  scriveners  ;  the  circum- 
stances under  which  he  is  traditionally  reported  to  have  first  come 
to  London  would  perhaps  prevent  him  from  corresponding  with 
his  country  friends;  and  not  even  a  copy  or  a  print  of  any  letter  by 
him  exists.  Milton,  on  the  other  hand,  had  a  liberal  education  ; 
early  in  life  he  made  acquaintance  with  men  of  good  position  in 
England  and  on  the  Continent ;  he  was  in  the  service  of  the  Stale  ; 
many  of  his  official  and  private  letters  are  in  print;  he  was  not 
only  a  poet  but  also  a  politician  and  a  theologian  J  moreover  his 
handwriting  was  remarkably  good,  and  up  to  (he 
seven  or  forty-eight  he  could  see  to  write  ;  but,  a  few  pages  ot  the 



Cambridge  MS.  (parts  of  which  are  by  other  hands)  and  three  or 
four  letters  and  signatures,  and  perhaps  a  few  notes  in  printed 
books,  are  all  that  has  hitherto  been  known  to  exist  of  the  writing 
of  a  man  so  celebrated.* 

That  Milton  was  a  diligent  rea-der  of  books  we  learn  from  the 
testimony  of  his  nephew  E.  Philips  ;  but,  if  that  testimony  had  been 
absent,  Milton's  printed  works  would  have  supplied  the  evidence. 
His,  History  of  England  may  have  occupied  some  time,  and  the 
sources  of  it  lay  in  comparatively  few  volumes,  which  may  have 
been  consulted  by  him  seriatim  as  he  made  progress  with  the  work. 
But  some  of  his  other  treatises  have  reference  to  Authors  of  widely 
different  characters  and  concerning  widely  different  subjects,  and 
the  readiness  with  which  his  oen  could  eno-ao-e  in  controversy  would 
seem  to  show  that  he  must  have  accumulated  stores  on  which  he 
could  draw  for  illustrations,  authorities,  and  proofs.  A  long  list  of 
Authors  read  or  consulted  by  Milton  may  be  made  from  his  printed 
works,  although  he  was  not  profuse  in  direct  citations,  and  in  many 
instances  it  is  easier  to  see  that  he  drew  from  his  store  of  acquired 
knowledge  than  to  ascertain  the  exact  sources  of  it;  while  the 
wealth  of  allusion  in  the  great  poems  composed  after  he  became 
blind  seems  impossible  except  on  the  supposition  of  adventitious  aid 
previously  prepared. 

What  might  be  well  conjectured  is  now  proved  by  the  volume 
found  among  Sir  F.  Graham's  papers  during  recent  researches  made 
for  the  Historical  Manuscripts  Commission  ;  and  that  volume  supplies 
proof  that  it  was  not  the  only  one  of  the  kind  compiled  by  Milton. 
It  contains  references  to  Titles  which  are  not  in  that  volume,  and 

•  In  the  autumn  of  187~>  Mr.  Payne  Collier  announced  that  a  copy  of  Cooper*a 
Thesaurus  (fol.  1573)  iu  his  possession  contained  numerous  DOfeM  by  Milton;  and 
by  Mi.  Collier's  courtesy  I  have  had  the  pleasure  of  leeing  it.  M\  visit  was  too 
short  to  justify  the  expression  of  mere  than  my  opinion,  that  the  specimen!  which 
I  saw  ditl'er  from  what  I  had  previously  known  m  M ikon's  writing. 



never  were  in  it.  Moreover  there  is  a  marginal  reference  in  p.  197 
to  an  Index  Theologicas,  forming  a  separate  volume,  or  at  least  a 
section  of  another  volume.a  The  Commonplace  Book  now  printed 
shows,  mostly  in  Milton's  own  handwriting,  a  list  of  upwards  of 
eighty  authors  read  by  him — English,  French,  Italian,  Latin,  and 
Greek.  The  entries  are  not  mere  extracts  from  these  Authors,  they 
are  mostly  Instances  and  Conclusions  deduced  from,  or  fortified 
by  references  to,  them.  The  language  is  in  many  cases  Milton's; 
in  English,  French,  Italian,  or  Latin. 

In  one  or  two  cases  where  the  handwriting  was  by  an  Amanuensis 
the  entry  seems  to  have  been  made  while  Milton  dictated  the 
sentence:  the  scribe  has  had  just  time  to  write  or  begin  words, 
when  (the  sentence  being  incomplete)  Milton  directed  them  to  be 
cancelled,  and  then  substituted  another  phrase.  An  instance  of  this 
treatment  is  at  p.  77.  In  a  letter  by  Milton  to  Peter  Heimbach 
written  in  1G66,  he  apologises  for  the  bad  writing,  saying  that  the 
boy  employed  to  write  was  quite  ignorant  of  Latin,  and  that  he 
(Milton)  was  obliged  to  dictate,  not  the  words,  but  one  by  one  the 
letters  of  which  they  were  composed.  Such  a  scribe  seems  to  have 
made  the  entry  at  p.  198,  where  a  second  attempt  at  a  proper  spelling 
was  as  vain  as  the  first. 

The  leaves  of  the  MS.  measure  LI  J  inches  in  height  by  nearly 
9  inches  in  breadth.  Originally  there  must  have  been  126  lea  .  , 
the  pagination  going  from  1  to  250.  The  leaf  of  table  (the  126th) 
is  not  paged.  The  lower  halves  of  the  first  seven  leaves  have 
been  cut  off;  the  leaves  forming  pp.  33-37,  83-98,  207  and  208, 
225-228,  and  231-234  have  been  cut  out.  Slight  fragments  of 
the  inner  portions  of  83-98  remain,  and  these  have  been  preserved 
in  the  rebindino-  of  the  volume,  because  the  fragment  of  p.  ^7 
shows  remains  of  writing  (not  by  Milton's  hand)  placed  trans- 

*  At  J>,  221  is  a  reference  to  another  or  the  other  Index.  Hut,  Ptipa  is  the 
Mlbject,  it  seems  that  the  Index  Thcohujleux  WU  intended. 



versely  and  cut  through.  As  the  table  at  the  end  is  perfect,  and 
as  all  the  titles  there  are  found  in  the  MS.  as  it  now  exists,  it 
may  be  concluded  that  none  of  the  text  of  the  volume  has  been 
removed.  The  cover  was  rough  brown  sheep-skin  without  any 
trace  of  lettering,  and  neither  the  cover  nor  its  contents  contained 
any  name  of  the  original  or  any  later  possessors 

Attention  may  be  drawn  to  a  few  of  the  entries  in  the  volume. 
At  page  5  Milton  notices  (from  Beda)  Casdmon  and  his  poetry. 
Francis  Junius,  the  possessor  of  the  MS.  (now  in  the  Bodleian 
Library)  of  Coedmon's  metrical  Paraphrase,  was  one  of  Milton's 
friends,  and  may  have  shown  the  MS.,  or  may  have  communicated 
the  contents  to  him.  Some  have  supposed  that  Milton  took  some 
hints  from  this  poem  for  the  framework  of  Paradise  Lost. — At 
p.  109  is  a  remark  showing  Milton's  displeasure  at  the  marriage  of 
Charles  h  with  one  of  the  Roman  Catholic  belief. — At  page  179 
he  brands  the  Law  French,  then  (and  for  nearly  a  century  later) 
used  in  Law  Reports,  as  "  gibberish." — At  page  180  his  remark 
on  the  tendency  of  the  English  to  follow  French  fashions  would 
seem  to  lead  to  the  inference  that  the  sentence  was  written  soon 
after  the  marriage  of  Charles  I.  There  is  evidently  an  allusion  to 
Charles  I.  at  p.  246,  where  remonstrants  are  by  the  Prince  treated 
as  rebels.  At  page  181  of  the  MS.  (page  24,  L  11,  from  foot  of  the 
print)  is  a  line  of  heroic  verse. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  numerous  original  chroniclers  and 
writers  of  English  history  vouched  by  Milton  in  his  History  of 
Britain  do  not  seem  to  have  been  read  by  him  while  the  Common- 
place Book  was  in  process  of  compilation.  1  have  examined  the 
prose,  works  of  Milton  with  a  view  to  find  how  far  this  Commonplace 
Book  was  made  serviceable  in  his  various  compositions;  for  facility 

8  The  leaves  are  much  damp-stained.  The  volume  has  been  rebound  bj  Mr. 
Zaeansdorf,  and  ho  has  strengthened  and  admirably  treated  the  Leave*  without  in 
the  least  affecting  the  various  tints  of  the  inks  ttted  by  the  WritGA. 



of  reference,  use  has  been  made  of  the  edition^  in  one  volume,  by 
Kobert  Fletcher,  8vo.  London,  1858,  and  notes  will  direct  the 
reader  to  those  passages  in  which  entries  in  the  Commonplace  Book 
have  been  clearly  utilised.11  These  are  but  few;  longer  research 
will  probably  produce  more.  The  other  Commonplace  Book3  which, 
as  before  noticed,  Milton  seems  to  have  compiled,  would  doubtless 
(if  present)  have  caused  more  references.  It  is  noticeable  that  no 
use  seems  to  have  been  made  of  many  entries  on  subjects  to  which 
Milton  specially  addressed  himself,  and  where  citations  of,  or  refer- 
ences to,  authors  of  repute  would  have  added  force,  or  at  least 
authority,  to  his  own  arguments.  Such  an  absence  of  citation  b 
is  not  however  to  be  wondered  at  when  the  temper  of  Milton's 
mind  is  considered ;  for  it  was  characterised  by  aversion  from 
authority.  We  know,  from  what  he  has  written  of  himself,  the 
ardour  and  extent  of  his  studies,  his  consciousness  of  ability,  and 
his  determination  to  leave  somewhat  which  the  world  would  not 
willingly  let  die  ;  so  the  written  thoughts  of  other  authors  were 
used  by  him  as  mental  food  to  be  digested  and  assimilated,  and  at 
fit  times  to  be  reproduced  from  his  brain  in  better  or  varied  forms. 

Milton  seems  to  have  had  an  exalted  idea  of  himself  and  his  doings. 
At  the  age  of  forty  he  thought  it  not  unbecoming,  in  a  controversial 
treatise  (The  Second  Defence  of  the  People  of  England),  to  dilate 
with  complacency  on  the  graces  of  his  person  ;  and  a  few  years 
before,  hi  the  Apology  for  Smectymnuus,  he  filled  several  pages 
with  an  account  (and  very  interesting  it  is)  of  his  great  diligence 
in  study  and  the  pursuit  of  virtue  ;  so  it  is  not  surprising  that  at 
the  more  youthful  age  of  thirty  he  gave  a  grandiloquent  account 

*  These  passages  arc  at  pp.  07-69  of  the  present  volume,  and  arc  referred  W  bf 
means  of  the  Roman  numerals  (in  brackets]  in  the  text  of  the  volume. 

b  There  is  in  the  second  hook  of  The  lieason.  of  Church  (iovrrn went  MTftd 
against  Prclaty  a  passage  in  scorn  of  "men  whose  teaming  and  belief  lie  in  the 
marginal  stuffings." 



to  a  friend  of  the  extent  of  his  recent  studies.  In  a  letter  to  Carlo 
Deodati  dated  23rd  of  September,  1G37,  he  says,  a  I  was  long 
employed  in  unravelling  the  obscure  history  of  the  Italians  under 
the  Lombards,  the  Franks,  and  Germans,  to  the  time  when  they 
received  their  liberty  from  Kodolphus  King  of  Germany."  Any  one 
would  suppose  that  Milton  had  been  wading  through  all  or  most 
of  the  writers  who  treated  of  that  history  during  the  seven  centuries 
indicated.  The  Commonplace  Book  however  shows  that  we  need 
not  conclude  more  than  that  he  had  been  reading,  in  a  single 
volume,  the  History  of  Italy  by  Sigonius*  from  a.d.  570  to  a.d. 
1286,  the  exact  space  of  time  referred  to  by  Milton. 

The  handwriting  of  Milton  has  been  the  subject  of  a  monograph 
by  the  late  Mr.  Leigh  Sotheby,  whose  volume  contains  a  full 
account  of  the  Milton  MSS.  at  Cambridge,  and  of  the  few  others 
then  known.  Sir  F.  Graham's  volume  contains  a  great  mass  of 
writing  by  the  Poet's  hand,  though,  it  must  be  confessed,  it  is  not 
of  the  like  interest  with  the  Cambridge  volume,  because  it  does  not 
contain  any  purely  original  compositions.  The  entries  in  the 
Commonplace  Book  are  by  five  or  six  hands.  The  greater  number 
are  by  Milton  at  various  periods  of  his  life,  mostly  before  his  going 
into  Italy.  Two  (in  p.  1 1)7)  are  by  Daniel  Skinner.  Some  entries 
are  by  one  of  the  hands  that  copied  parts  of  the  Treatise  Pe  DoctrinS 
Christiana,  now  in  the  Public  Record  OOiee,  ami  edited  by  Mr. 
(afterwards  Bishop)  Sumner  in  1825.  Some  arc  by  the  hand  which 
copied  the  Sonnet  No.  17  in  the  Cambridge  MS.;  one  (at  least)  is 
by  the  hand  that  made  the  transcript  of  the  First  Book  of  Paradise 
Lost  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Baker  ol  Bay  (ord  bury  $  and  some  are, 
I  feel  satisfied,  by  Sir  11.  Graham  o(  Nctberby,  Viscount  Preston. 

a  Carol i  Sigonli  Historian!  m  <U«  regno  Italia  Rbb,  xx.  qui  Itbri  historian  nhntinu 
dlxx.  usque  ml  MCCLXXxvi,  iroo  n -num  tateriil  el  Utartai  Italia  radtmpta  Ml 

continent.    Franrofurt i  MTDXCI.    (Tills  ffM  the  edition  OacU  bj  Milton). 



The  autotypes  which  accompany  the  first  edition,  and  which  should 
be  transferred  to  the  present  volume,  give  specimens  of  all  but  two 
of  the  different  handwritings  contained  in  Sir  F.  Graham's  MS. 
Milton's  writing  generally  speaks  for  itself.  Mr.  Sotheby's  volume, 
and  the  fac-similes  in  the  printed  edition  of  the  Treatise  De  Doctrina 
Christiana,  and  in  the  English  translation  of  it,  and  in  Professor 
Masson's  Life  of  Milton,  will  enable  anyone  to  compare  all  the 
specimens  except  those  of  the  entries' by  Lord  Preston's  hand.  The 
small  waking  by  Milton  is  of  earlier  date  than  the  large. 

Milton's  writing  has  some  distinguishing  marks.  He  is  not 
careful,  after  a  full  stop,  to  begin  the  following  sentence  with  a 
capital  letter;  a  he  is  indifferent  to  the  correct  spelling  of  names  of 
persons;  he  always  writes  pr<^lacie,  precept,  pretence ;b  he  always 
writes  tliire  or  thir  for  the  possessive  pronoun  their.c 
0  In  the  print  this  peculiarity  is  observed. 

b  Wilton  was  not  alone  in  this  practice.  It  was  rather  common  in  the  seventeenth 
century.  Lord  Anglesey,  who  was  an  acquaintance  of  Milton,  spelled  in  the  same  way- 

c  I  have  seen  the  MS.  poem  found  by  Mr.  Morlcy  at  the  end  of  Milton's  Poems 
(8vo.  1645)  :  the  use  of  the  form  their  is  alone,  I  think,  conclusive  against  its  being 
by  Milton's  hand;  and  there  are  objections  in  the  writing,  particularly  the  form  of 
the  small  li.  The  bad  grammar  and  the  full  stuffing  of  concetti  are  strong  argu- 
ments against  it  being  composed  by  Milton.  The  use  of  the  same  form  their  in  the 
poem  signed  J.  M.  written  on  a  blank  page  of  Rosse's  Mel  Heliconium  is,  I  think, 
fatal  to  the  claim  of  those  verses  to  be  by  Milton's  band;  and  the  small  e  there  most 
frequently  used  is  not  that  used  by  Milton.  In  the  initials  J.  >.I.  appended  to  thai 
poetn  the  J.  is  not  crossed,  a  variation  from  all  the  undoubted  signatures  >>f  Milton, 
and  the  M.  (as  Mr.  Sotheby  admits)  is  at  variance,  with  that  used  by  Milton. 

It  is  remarkable  that  both  poems  introduce  the  Bee,  and  the  alchemical  fiction  of 
a  flower  being  reproducible  from  its  calcined  ashes. 

Among  the  MbS.  of  Sir  Reginald  Graham,  Bart  is  a  volume  of  poetry  containing 
an  epitaph  on  Madam  Elizabeth  Swcttenham  in  14  lines,  where  the  similarity  of  the 
12th  and  13th  lines  to  the  3rd  and  4th  of  the  dispute  1  poem  is  noticeable. 

Begins,  If  chcarfull,  chastas  ttXfi  the  SB  >W8. 

Ends,  No  soul  can  be  more  blest  than  this, 

Whose  sacred  reliques  in  this  nrn 
Are  kept  until  the  Soul's  return, 
To  re-unite  itself  to  its  known  mate, 
And  raise  these  reliquas  to  an  happier  st o to. 

The  same  Volume  of  poetry  contains  the  following, *  JoHl  Mazavini  Cardiualii 
CAM  I).  SOC.  c 



The  handwritings  of  which  the  three  plates  in  this  volume  do 

not  contain  specimens  are  free  and  flowing,  and  the  letters  of  each 

word  are,  generally,  connected.    Some  of  the  entries  from  Italian 

works  are  by  those  hands,  e.  g.  those  from  Berni  at  p.  7  1 ,  and  from 

Boiardo  at  pp.  77  and  187:  and  of  a  smaller  kind  those  from 

Machiavelli's  Discorsi  at  pp.  148,  185,  198,  242,  243,  245,  and 

246,  which  latter,  though  in  some  respects  they  resemble  some  of 

Milton's  writing,  I  think  cannot  be  said  certainly  to  be  by  him. 

The  doubly  looped  f,  the  full  loop  to  1,  b,  and  h,  are  forms  not 

affected  by  Milton;  and  the  capital  M  in  two  of  these  latter  entries 

is  so  formed  that  the  last  limb  represents  a  capital  C  not  looped. 

Epitaphinm.  authore  Job.  Milton."  The  writer  then  gives  the  last  three  lines  of 
the  long  sarcastic  epitaph  on  Cardinal  Mazarin  which  may  be  found  at  length  in 
Charles  Gildon's  Miscellany  Poems,  8vo.  Lopd.  1C92,  and  in  vol.  i.  part  2  of  the 
State  Poems,  in  both  of  which  collections  it  is  attributed  to  Milton.  These  three 
lines  he  expands  into  ten  lines  of  English  verse.  Then  he  copies  the  Latin  epigram 
on  Pope  Boniface  the  Eighth  (also  to  be  found  in  Gildon's  Miscellany  Poems  and 
the  State  Poems)  and  gives  a  poetical  version  of  it.  The  same  volume  of  MS. 
poetry  contains  "To  a  friend  upon  reading  Mr.  Charles  Gildon's  Miscellany  Poems  " 
(eighteen  lines). 

Begins,  I  have,  Sir,  by  a  transient  look 

Trayers'd  this  miscellaneous  book: 

Pardon  the  ink  which  I  have  spilt  on 

The  two  quaint  epitaphs  by  Milton.    (Pp.  20,  "n.) 

The  reference  to  pp.  29  and  33  are  evidently  to  the  pages  of  Gildon's  volume  \ 
the  epitaph  on  Mazarin  being  at  p.  21),  and  the  epigram  on  Boniface  at  p.  33.  So 
that  Gildon,  who  was  a  conteraporar)  of  Milton,  attributed  these  two  Latin  pro- 
ductions to  him. 

Charles  Gildon  was  a  friend  of  Charles  Blount,  whose  Miscellaneous  Workl  were 
published  collectively  in  lG'Jo  in  one  volume,  in  uhich  is  a  long  preface  by  Gildon 
to  the  Oracles  of  Reason,  One  of  Hb.unf's  productions  N  "A  just vindication of 
Learning  and  the  liberty  of  the  Press,"  u  trad  of  not  quite  tuonty-threc  pages;  at 
p.  4  of  which  he  says,  "I  cannot  but  heroin  agree  with  Mr.  Milton  and  say  that 
(unless  it  be  effected  with  great  Caution)  you  had  almost  as  goo,l  a*  kill  a  man 
as  kill  a  book."  At  p.  6  he  Bays,  "I  shall  here  demonstrate  the  aoieasonnnta  eni 
of  any  such  licence  <>r  Imprimatur  v."'  Ilassagcs  equal  to  seven  pages  ol  this 
short  tract  arc,  with  some  trifling  alterations,  afterwards  renreyesi  from  ICilton'l 
Arevpapitle*,  ertthoml  the  slightest  acknowledgtweal  «»f  the  source,  They  are 
worked  up  into  Blount's  tract  so  as  to  lend  a  rnulov  t  >  suppose  that  they  ore 



The  entry  in  p.  185  would  seem  to  have  been  the  last  thing  placed 
on  that  page :  it  is  important,  as  containing  the  dictum  that  against 
an  evil  prince  the  sword  is  the  only  remedy.  Whether  by  Milton's 
hand  or  not,  the  entry  was  made  in  his  lifetime.  The  head  word 
Divitice  at  p.  148,  which  page  contains  nothing  but  a  note  from 
Machiavelli,  seems  to  be  by  the  copier  of  that  part  of  the  treatise 
De  Doctrina  Christiana  of  which  a  specimen  is  given  in  plate  xx. 
No.  2  of  Mr.  Sotheby's  work. 

Such  of  the  entries  in  the  Commonplace  Book  as  are  not  by 
Milton's  hand  are  in  the  present  volume  printed  in  Italic  letters. 
In  a  few  of  the  margins  will  be  found  references,  by  means  of 
numbers  in  brackets,  to  similar  handwritings  copied  in  Mr. 
Sotheby's  volume:  the  first  number  indicates- the  plate;  the  second 
number  indicates  the  specimen  in  that  plate.  A  table  of  the 
authors  cited  is  added,  and  will  be  found  at  pp.  64-GG  of  the 
present  volume. 

In  the  middle  of  the  Commonplace  Book  was  found  a  short 
letter  by  Henry  Lawes  to  Milton.  We  know  that  Lawes  set  to 
music  some  of  Milton's  poetry,  and  that  Milton  addressed  a  Sonnet 
to  him.  This  letter  shows  that  he  had  iriiluence  enough  to  get  the 
licence  necessary  to  enable  his  friend  to  leave  England  for  the 
Continent.  The  letter  is  without  date,  bat  the  wording  of  it  pi 
it  to  have  been  written  before  1643.  The  writer  says  that  ho  sends 
to  Milton  a  letter  from  the  Lord  Warden  of  the  Cinque  P 
and  that  if  Milton  intended  to  write  himself  he  couhl  not  have  a 
safer  convoy  for  both  than  from  Suflblk  House.  Now,  in  16!  s 
Theophilus  Howard  Earl  of  Suflblk  was  Lord  Warden  of  the 
Cinque  Ports;  and  his  town-house  at  Charing  Cross  was  known  as 
Suffolk  House.  In  1G42  that  house  was  purchased  by  Algernon 
Percy  Karl  of  Northumberland,  and  tin-  same  nOUSQ  wa<  rwafdl 
called  Northumberland  House.    As  we  hue  no  intimation  from 



any  source  of  an  intention  by  Milton  to  make  a  second  journey 
abroad,  it  may  be  safely  concluded  that  the  letter  was  written  on 
the  occasion  of  Milton's  preparation  for  his  continental  excursion 
in  1638.a 

The  following  is  a  full  copy  of  the  letter: 

Sir,  I  have  sent  you  with  this  a  letter  from  my  Lord  Warden  of  the 
Cinque  Ports  under  his  hand  and  seale,  which  wilbe  a  sufficient  warrant 
to  justify  your  goinge  out  of  the  King's  Dominions ;  if  you  intend  to 
wryte  yourselfe  you  cannot  have  a  safer  convoy  for  both  tban  & 
Suffolk  House,  but  that  I  leave  to  your  owne  consideration  and  reinaine 

faithfull  friend  and  servant, 
Henry  Lav 

(Address)  any  waies  Aprooved. 

Mr  John  Milton 

haste  these. 

This  letter  is  much  disfigured,  it  having  seemingly  been  used  as 
blotting  paper  in  the  course  of  making  entries  in  the  volume. 

On  the  back  of  the  letter  are  the  following  lines  by  Milton's 
hand : 

Fixe  heere  yec  overdaled  sphears 
That  wing  the  restless  foote  of  time. 

The  Latin  prolusion  or  address  in  favour  of  early  rising,  and  the 
verses  which  follow  it,  and  which  embody  the  same  ideas  as  those 

*  I  am  enabled  to  add  an  interesting  item  to  onr  scanty  knowledge  of  Milton'* 
doings  abroad.   In  the  Travellers'  Book  of  the  Rnglish  Col  lego  at  Room  it  i-» 
recorded  that  on  the  30th  of  October,  1638,  Milton  and  his  servant,  and  N.  Gary, 
brother  of  Lord  Falkland,  Dr.  Holding  of  Lancaster,  and  N.  Forteacoe  din<  !  at  tl 

The  entry,  which  was  scut  to  sir  T.  Dnffoa  Elardj  by  Mr.  Stevenson  (• 
examining  the  Vatican  MSS.  for  onr  Government),  is  u>  follows:    Octobris  die  SO. 
Pransi  sunt  in  Collegio  no.stro  lUastrissimaa  I>.  X.  Cur)  frater  baron  i»  dr  RuJn  'and. 

Doctor  Holdingns,  Lancastrensls,  D,  N.  Fortescoto,  n  Dominai  MiltOAMi  cum 

f amnio,  nobiles  Angli,  el  oxcopti  sunt  hiui.V 



contained  in  the  prose  composition,  are  on  a  single  leaf  of  foolscap 
paper  much  damaged  by  damp  and  its  left  margin  destroyed,  hi 
the  left-hand  margin  on  a  level  with  the  first  line  is  the  name 
Milton.  "When  I  first  discovered  the  paper,  and  for  some  days 
afterwards,  the  letters  es  were  visible  immediately  preceding  the 
word  Milton;  but  that  portion  of  the  paper  soon  crumbled  into 
dust.  That  the  marginal  words  were  Johannes  Milton  may  be 
safely  conceded.  The  leaf  was  found  loose  in  the  same  box  with 
the  Commonplace  Book.  The  ideas  expressed  in  these  two  short 
compositions  are  not  recondite,  but  they  show  the  same  delight 
with  the  beauties  of  Nature  which  Milton  afterwards  expressed  in 
choicer  language.  I  conclude  that  these  are  juvenile  efforts  of 
Milton  which  he  did  not  think  worthy  of  publication  when  in 
1074  he  gave  to  the  world  the  Prolusiones  Oratorio;.  In  support 
of  the  opinion  that  John  Milton  the  poet  was  the  composer  of 
the  contents  of  this  single  leaf,  the  following  passages  from  his 
acknowledged  writings  may  be  cited. 

In  the  Prolusion  Utrum  Dies  an  Nox  prcestantior  sit  ?  are  the 
following  passages : 

Etcerte  primo  quam  omnium  animantium  sfirpi  grata  sit  ct  desiderabilis 
[Dies],  quid  opere  est  vobis  exponcre  ?  cum  vcl  ipsa  volucres  nequeanl 
sunm  celare  gaudium,  quin  egressaj  nidulis,  obi  primum  diluculavit.  aul 
in  verticibus  arborum  conccntu  suavissimo  dcliniant  omnia,  aul  sursmu 
librantes  se,  et  quam  possunt  prope  solem  rolitent,  redennti  gratulatura) 
luci.  Ac  primus  omnium  adyentantem  Solem  triumphal  msonraus  gallu*, 
et  quasi  pra:co  quivis,  moncre  vidctur  homines,  ut  excusso  somuo  1 
(leant,  atquc  obviam  eflundant  se  novam  salutatum  Auroram:  tripudianl 
in  agris  capelhe,  totumque  genus  quadrupedau  gestil  et  exuttat  Irctil  « 

 Caltha qnoque  et  Rosa  no  Tiiliil  addaut  ooounuoi  gaudio, 

apcrientea  sinum,  odores  suos  Soli  tantum  BerfatOB  profuse  spirant,  qui  bun 

noctem  dedignantur  impertiri  cateriqae  floras  inchnaia 

paulum  ct  rore  languidula  erigentes  capita  quasi  prtebent  n  Boli  

XVI 11 


Ipsaqnoqnc  Tellus  in  adventum  Solis  cultiori  se  indnit  vestitu,  nubesque 
juxta  variis  chlamydatre  coloribus,  pompa  solemni,  longoque  ordine 
videntur  ancillari  surgenti  Deo. 

In  TJA  llegro. 

To  hear  the  lark  begin  his  flight 

While  the  cock  with  lively  din 
Scatters  the  rear  of  darkness  thin, 
And  to  the  stack  or  the  barn-door 
Stoutly  struts  his  dames  before. 
Right  against  the  eastern  gate 
Where  the  great  sun  begins  his  state 
Robed  in  flames  and  amber  light 
The  clouds  in  thousand  liveries  dight.a 

I  should  have  liked  to  have  added  to  this  volume  a  fac-simile  of 
the  whole  or  portion  of  the  leaf  containing  the  Latin  prolusion 
and  verses,  so  that  those  well  acquainted  with  Milton's  writing 
might  judge  if  they  were  by  the  poet's  hand.b  The  writing  is  not 
as  a  whole  like  any  that  has  been  heretofore  known  as  Milton's. 
It  is  a  stiff  legal  hand,  with  a  shade  of  timidity.  The  capital 
letters  (except  J)  are  wholly  different  from  those  known  to  b 
Milton,  and  the  small  letters  c  (except  where  the  Greek  e  occurs) 
h  and  r  arc  such  as  he  never  used  so  far  as  hitherto  known.  But 
it  must  be  recollected  that  Milton's  father  was  a  scrivener,  and  the 
poet  most  likely  in  early  years  used  to  write  in  the  fashion  which 
he  saw  exercised  at  home.  The  writing.-  now  in  question  may  bare] 
been  executed  when  he  was  at  St.  Paul's  School,  01  in  his  early 
college  days;  and  the  necessity  of  sending  np  I  neatly  written  copy 

"  Sec  also  Paradise  Lost,  book  iv,  Line*  623,  641-645;  book  v.  lines  1-6,  20-23. 
b  As  this  could  not  bo  doue/Iharo  had  a  few  copies  taken,  and  hate  Jepotitad 
one  (and  also  one  of  th«-  letter  by  Lawos)  iii  the  British  tfoeci  i, 



could  not  prevent  the  Greek  e,  which  Milton  afterwards,  for  a  long 
period,  adopted,  from  appearing  now  and  then.  Even  here  appears 
occasionally  the  disconnexion  of  letters  which  was  afterwards  one 
of  the  characteristics  of  Milton's  writing  :  and  in  the  latter  lines  of 
the  verses  a  strong  likeness  to  some  of  Milton's  undoubted  writing 
is  visible.  I  must,  however,  express  my  doubt  whether  the  writing 
is  by  a  juvenile  hand. 

Plow  or  when  the  Commonplace  Book  came  amongst  the  Netherby 
MSS.  is  not  known.  The  late  Sir  James  Graham  concluded  that 
it  contained  some  writing  by  Lord  PrestoD.  Whether  Lord  Preston 
had  any  acquaintance  with  Milton  or  any  of  his  family  is  uncertain: 
from  his  letters  it  is  clear  that  he  was  a  collector  of  books  and  of 
MSS.a  and  curious  about  literary  matters.  It  is  said  that  Milton 
gave  away  or  disposed  of  his  library  before  his  death :  but  it  is  not 
likely  that  he  would  have  parted  with  his  Commonplace  Books. 
His  daughters  however  are  said  to  have  made  free  with  his  books; 
so  that  this  may  have  been  one  which  they  disposed  of,  and  which 
Lord  Preston  secured;  or  again  he  may  have  procured  it  directly  or 
indirectly  from  Daniel  Skinner,  who  after  Milton's  death  carried  off 
into  Holland  some  of  Milton's  books. b  This  last  conjecture  seems 
probable.  It  is  known  that  Skinner  transcribed  portions  of  the 
Treatise  De  Doctrind  Christiana,  and  trie  first  and  third  entries  at 
p.  197  of  the  Commonplace  Book  (see  Autotype)  are  I  believe  by 
Skinner's  hand.  He  was  with  Lord  Preston  at  Westminster  School; 
and  when  the  latter  was  Envoy  at  Paris  in  1682  Skinner  wrote  two 

■  A  copy  of  the  sale  catalogue  of  Lord  Preston's  large  library  (sold  at  London  in 
1600)  is  at  Longleat.    Among  the  hooks  is  a  copy  of  Bodin'a  Treat:  '  non- 

wealth  translated  into  English  (fol.  Lend.  1606).  All  the  extracts  from  this  trans- 
lation are  in  Lord  Preston's  writing.  The  Single  note  by  Milton  from  Bodia,  p.  189, 
seems  to  he  from  a  Latin  edition. 

b  Sec  an  unsigned  letter  among  the  Mss.  of  the  H&rquia  of  Bath,  (Apptndli  to 
Fourth  Report  of  the  Historical  MSS.  Commission,  p.  231,  col,  1.) 



letters  in  French a  to  Kim  asking  for  employment  under  him,  and 
mentioning  his  own  early  schooldays  and  his  proficiency  in  the 
French  language.  For  one  of  these  letters  he  used  a  seal  impres- 
sions of  which  are  found  on  several  letters  to  Lord  Preston  by  u  spy 
employed  by  him  at  Paris  ;  so  that  it  is  probable  that  Skinner's 
services  -were  made  use  of:b  and  the  volume  now  printed  may  have 
been  an  offering  to  obtain  or  retain  the  favour  of  his  old  school- 


fellow.  The  question  how  it  came  to  its  present  resting-place  is 
of  secondary  interest.  The  authenticity  of  the  volume  is  unques- 

Sir  Frederick  Graham,  thinking  it  unwise  to  leave  such  a  record 
of  some  of  the  studies  of  a  great  man  to  the  .charge  of  a  single 
manuscript,  very  kindly  approved  my  suggestion  to  have  the  con- 
tents printed,  and  most  liberally  entrusted  the  volume  to  my  bands 
for  that  purpose.  The  publication  of  it  in  the  ordinary  way  would 
not  (I  was  informed  by  a  publisher)  have  been  remunerative:  hence 
the  means  now  adopted  fur  its  perpetuation.  The  thanks  of  many 
besides  the  Members  will  be  given  to  the  President  and  Council  of 
the  Camden  Society  for  printing  such  an  interesting  document,  and 
to  Sir  F.  Graham  for  making  it  known  and  allowing  its  publication. 

A.  J.  11. 

*  Among  Sir  Frederick  Graham's  MSS. 

b  A  short  unsigned  letter  of  advice  is,  I  think,  by  Skinner's  hand. 


Reasons  should  be  given  for  this  second  edition  of  Milton's  Com- 
monplace Book.  Some  time  after  the  issue  by  the  Camden  Society 
of  the  first  edition,  the  Secretary  received  two  letters  from  one  of 
the  members  (a  gentleman  of  great  eminence  at  Cambridge)  who 
complained  of  numerous  errors  in  the  volume,  and  was  particularly 
severe  in  his  remarks  on  the  Greek  passages  (twenty-five  lines,  at 
most,  of  the  volume),  and  he  also  remarked  on  mistakes  in  the  Latin. 
On  closely  comparing  the  printed  volume  with  the  autotype  copy 
I  found  that  many  Greek  words  were  not  accented  in  accord- 
ance with  the  MS.,  but  that  Milton  himself  was  in  fault  in  some 
instances,  and  Lord  Preston  in  others;  dint  for  two  extraordinary 
mis-spellings  (p.  6,  1.  2  from  foot,  and  p.  31,  1.  8)  Milton  is  n 
sible;  as  also  for  a  third  (KcofiaaOat  for  revijiaaOai)  if  his  hand  wrote 
the  Prolusion  at  p.  81 ;  and  also  for  seven  instances  of  Latin  words, 
either  badly  spelt  or  mis-spelt:  these  arc  in  addition  to  mis-spellings 
of  proper  names,  of  which  several  instances  occur.  1  he  errors  by 
Lord  Preston's  or  other's  hands  are  denoted  in  the  list  of  errors  by 
(P.)  in  the  case  of  Greek,  and  by  italics  in  the  case  of  Latin. 

My  intention,  when  I  offered  to  edit  the  volume,  was  to  give  a 
printed  copy  of  a  manuscript,  part  of  the  value  whereol  con!  Isted  in 
the  peculiarities  and  even  carelessness  in  Milton's  spelling  an. 
position.  These  errors  (if  errors  they  oun  bo  called)  ought  to  have 
been  the  only  things  left  untouched  when  the  proof-sheets  were 
corrected.  But  I  regret  to  say  that  numerous  typographical  errors 
escaped  me.  These  I  can  trace  to  my  own  careless  handwriting, 
which  many  times  must  have  misled  the  reader  and  COinpc  itor  at 

C AMD.  SOC.  (I 



press.a  All  carelessly  written  vowels  are  liable  to  be  mistaken,  and 
the  letter  i  runs  a  double  risk  when  left  without  its  "tittel;  "  r  is 
very  liable  to  be  taken  as  part  of  an  adjoining  letter;  n  and  u 
are  often  mistaken.  Moreover,  the  proof-sheets  were  corrected  by 
candle-light,  without  assistance.  All  persons  who  have  printed  - 
know  that  when  the  author  or  editor  himself  corrects  the  proof- 
sheets  he  is  very  apt  to  imagine  that  he  sees  in  the  print  what 
from  perfect  acquaintance  with  his  text  he  knows  to  be  in  the  copy ; 
and  how  difficult  it  is  for  even  a  corrector  himself  to  be  correct. 
*  The  dot  over  an  i  Is  often  of  great  value;  as,  from  the  knowledge 
of  the  certain  existence  of  that  letter  in  a  succession  of  strokes, 
many  a  word  in  a  badly  written  manuscript  is  often  at  once  ascer- 
tained:  but  the  Greek  accents,  except  in  the  few  instances  where 
change  of  position  changes  the  meaning  of  the  word,  seem  not 
of  much  use  except  for  the  purpose  of  pedantic  display.5  Milton 
evidently  cared  little  about  them:  to  this  it  may  perhaps  be  retorted 
that  his  skill  in  Greek  was  not  groat;  and  certainly  it  might  be 
doubted  if  a  man  who  felt  the  sense  of  the  passages  cited  in  pp.  6 
and  31  could  have  written  ocfrtXifiov  and  tovto. 

As  to  Milton's  and  Lord  Preston's  mistakes,  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that  they  wrote  by  way  of  memoranda  for  themselves,  and 
not  for  others;  and,  even  when  quoting,  Milton  was  not  always 
careful;  a  singular  instance  of  this  is  at  p.  1,  1.  6  of  text. 

■  My  transcript  was  long  ago  destroyed,  so  that  I  cannot  say  what  positive  errors 
it  contained.    A  collection  of  all  which  occur  in  tic  print  enables  me  to  say  that 
they  were  very  few.     In  the  Greek  two  word*  were  run  together,  one  word 
divided  into  two,  and  a  termination  was  misi 

b  The  late  Thomas  de  Quincey,  whose  knowledge  of  Greek  wma  Qol  small,  cared 
for  nothing  but  the  spirit  us  and  the  sub«-n;>t  i<<ta.    I  hu>e  a  t.u  «>  . 
where  there  is  not  a  single  accent.    The  follow  Lllg  paftagt  from  a  sixteenth-century 

letter  will  he  familiar  to  many.  "Ego  hone  vidi  dt  fbbll  Colonic  quando 

fnistiS  corrector  et  debuisti.s  corrigere  giaeum,  tune  ah>cidi>th  omm  s  t  in  lies  .,ni 
fuerunt  supra  Uteris,  et  dixistis, '  Quid  decent  ill.e  stultitue?  " 



Among  the  corrections  sent  from  Cambridge  is  one  which  I  have 
not  thought  right  to  adopt;  in  p.  1,  1.  4  of  text,  the  corrector  said 
that  "Dei"  should  be  "Deo;"  but  Milton  wrote  "  Dei,"  and  in 
this  lie  only  followed  Tertullian  whom  lie  was  citing;  (1  have 
referred  to  the  passage;)  the  substitution  of  "Deo"  for  "Dei" 
would  materially  alter  the  sense  of  the  passage. 

The  spelling  Theodoret  for  Theodorit  (Theodoritus)  I  have  not 
thought  right  to  adopt,  because  in  Milton's  time,  and  as  late  as 
Cave  (see  his  Historia  Literaria,  ed.  1740},  that  Father's  name  was 
spelt  Theodoritus.  Doubtless  Theodoretus  is  the  correct  form,  but 
the  other  is  sanctioned  by  some  ancient  MSS.  its  well  as  by  print. 

About  the  fii]  7Tore,  p.  8,  1.  3  from  foot,  I  have  some  doubt.  J:i 
the  MS.  Milton  wrote  /j-rjirore  as  one  word;  and  then  inserted  a 
long  line  nearly  perpendicular,  which  has  the  effect  of  deleting  the 
first  limb  of  the  ir ;  whether  he  meant  to  divide  the  word  into  two 
must  remain  in  doubt;  a  literal  transcript  would  give  rare  : 
but  the  printed  edition  of  1689  (I  could  not  refer  to  the  earlier 
edition,  cited  by  Milton,  by  the  same  editor)  has  7rore. 

The  meaning  of  the  word  "  Sinderisis,"  3  also  (p.  11),  is  unknown 
to  the  Cambridge  corrector :  but  Lord  Preston  (although  he  was 
not  consistent  in  spelling  the  word)  is  not  to  blame;  for  he  only 
followed  the  printed  editions  of  the  "  Doctor  and  Student  " 
the  earliest  printed  edition,  temp.  Hen.  VIII.  down  to  the  latest 
edition  by  Muchall,  both  of  which  1  have;  and  no  editor  attempts 
to  explain  the  word.  But  the  explanation  is  simple  :  the  i''..-t 
transcriber  w<ts  probably  a  careless  writer,  and  did  not  know  Gr<  CK  ; 
and  he  wrote  Bwchrisis  or  sindc risis;  and,  if  the  Long  limb  ol  the  n 
in  sinchrisis  were  close  against  the  cs  the  printer  would  read  si 

•  Notwithstanding  my  efforts  at  accuracy  I  find  thai  the  head  lino  of  this  inbjcct 
haa  " Sindoresis "  instead  of  "  Sinderisisj "  and  the  fj>ir tins  in  iWiftWi  p.  .10,  i$ 
m>t  near  enough  to  the  first  letter. 



or  sinderisis:  if  he  wrote  sindcrisis  the  c  was  ill-formed,  and  the  word 
seemed  to  be  sinderisis.  The  word  is  simply  intended  to  represent 
crxr/Kpiai^;  and  the  thought  that  the  sound  of  the  word  "sindirisis" 
or  (i  sindtnsis"  would  have  immediately  suggested  avytcptaris  to  any- 
one with  even  a  moderate  knowledge  of  the  Greek  language,  was 
probably  the  reason  for  editors  thinking  that  it  needed  no  explanation. 

The  following  variations  should  be  stated.  In  the  Greek  quotations 
I  have  printed  <?t  and  ov  and  ai  instead  of  their  contracted  forms,  and 
0  and  t  instead  of  the  other  forms  of  those  letters.  In  the  Latin  1  have 
expanded  every  contraction  indicated  by  a  line  above  or  a  line  below. 

The  word "  perplacida  99  (p.  G,  1.  21)  is  denounced  by  the  C 
bridge  corrector  as  non-existent  and  as  having  no  meaning.  But 
Milton  wrote  that  word,  and  wrote  it  determinately.    A  reference 
to  the  autotype  will  show  that  he  wrote  "  perpl,''  and  then  erased 
those  letters,  but  on  second  thought  cjetermined  that  11  perpla< 
should  be  the  word,  and  accordingly  wrote  it.  With  the  same  b  I 
Selden  framed  the  word  84  Pontifieuli  "  (p.  14, 1.  3,  from  foot),  I 
temptuous  diminutive  of  <;  Pontifices."    Here  my  careless  writing 
caused  the  words  "Pontifieuli  se "  to  be  printed  "  Pontificali  si," 
and  thus  the  passage  was  unintelligible  to  the  Cambridge  corrector. 

Mistakes  in  the  original  MS.  Those  in 
which  (P)  is  attached  arc  hy  Lord 
Preston;  the  others  arc  by  Milton. 

p.  1,1.  14  from  foot,  ut  ratio  virtuti 

constare  pos^t 
p.  3,  1.  11,  ignovam 

4,  1,  Sidny. 

5,  5,  probande  (P) 

Corrections.  Tki €J9  i  tetti MtNttWti 
Hons  of  the  <})-(  ck  {t  set jd  that  in 
p.  20)  were  sent  from  Cambridge. 

ut  ratio  virtutie  constare 

posset  R 

*  Such  is  the  reading  of  the  only  editions  which  I  pOMMt,  fll.i  ful.  Rom.  1474, ami 
8vo.  Oxf.  1639. 



p.  5,  1.  21,  f3a\\ofj,€6 




6  from  foot,  ayiov, 

delete  the  comma 












t                     \  a 

eirippeiTes  a 










6,  last  line,  vrrohe^cope6ah 


7, 1. 

7  from  foot, 


r  Jaborum  c 




VljTOpiK?]  (P) 





aVTlOrTpOcfx)?  (P) 

i       '  ± 





rf;  SiaAefCTi/cr}  (P) 

tt?  b take kt iter, 




eoTtz;  (P) 


2  from  foot, 

d(f)opL(7fiepov  (P) 




aurrj?  (P) 



TriOava  (P) 



3  from  foot, 


8,  last  line,  yfrevBcx; 

15,  1. 

15,  bellicossimus 

in*      *    *    .  ~ 



1,  €V$OKLa 












2  from  foot, 


concubitus  (?) 









A  1 



















15,  exolvit 


»  This  correction  is,  I  think,  vm>ogj  Bfcould  it  nol  be  lin^fM  -ic  ? 
b  The  existence  in  the  MS.  of  the  accent  over  the  Brat  t  DM|  he  Coitfttttd. 
c  A  fuc-Simileof  this  inscription  is  in  the  plate  opposite  p  130  of  l>.  M.  Manni's 
Isloria  del  Decomerone,  &c.  4to.  Firente,  1742. 
CAMD.  SOC.  £ 



31,  1, 

2,  Sigerbertus 



8,  TOVTO 



3,  parare 



10  from  foot,  che 



16,  qui 

omit  this  word 


6,  statuant  (P) 



8,  Polyorcetcs  (P) 



8,  Empston  and  Dudly  j 
12,  Emston  and  Dudly  j 

Empson  and  Dudley 



9,  7€2'e<rea)? 


9  from  foot,  judicio 



6,  Arrianus 



5,  Multi  se  aliis 

multi  aliis 


9,  As  c  ams 



13,  transacts 



8  from  foot,  Kco^iaaOat 




Index  Etiiicus  1 

Malum  morale  4 

in  malo  morali  potest  multum  esse  admistum  boni  idquc  arte 
singulari,  nemo  venenum  temperat  felle,  ct  helleboro,  sed  conditis 
pulmentis  et  bene  saporatis  ita  diabolus  letale  quod  confieit,  rebus 
dei  gratissimis  imbiiit  etc.  Tertull:  de  spectaeulis  p.  102  edit. 

Cur  permittit  deus  malum  ?  lit  ratio  virtuii  constarc  possit.  virtus 
enim  malo  arguitur,  illustratur,  cxercctur.  qucmadmodum  disserit 
Laciantius  1.  5.  c.  7.  ut  haberet  ratio  ct  prudentia  in  quo  sc  excr« 
ceret,  eli<7endo  bona,  furriendo  mala,  lactan.  de  ira  dei,  c.  13. 
quamvis  ct  hsec  non  satisfaciunt. 

De  viro  bono.  5 

Cur  viri  boni,  et  alioquin  cgregii.  incrtis  lit  plurimum  ct  pusilli 
animi  speciem  prae  se  ferunt,  primoque  inniitu  nullius  esse  pretil 
videntur.  respondet  Laciantius  ut  haberent,  xindc  sununain  virtutem 
patientiam  possent  quotidie  cxcrccrc.  1.  (>.  c.  IS. 

vir  bonus  aliqua,  rationc  ctiam  angclos  exeellere  vidctur,  co  quod 
ille  infirmo  ct  mortali  corporc  involutus  cupiditatibua  semper  col- 
luctans  vitam  tamen  crelcstium  similem  IgpXC  aspirat  ttomil,  in 
Gen.  12.  propc  Pinem. 

CAMD.  SOC.  P  i 



Summa  viro  bono  liabita  reverentia  a  populo  etiam  furente.  Perche 
si  vegga  che  la  ve[ra~\  virtu  £  sicura  in  ogni  estremo  pericolo,  anchora 
ircCl  furore  de  nemici  in  qital  vespro  SicUiano  sanguinoso^  di  tanta 
multitudine  uccisa,  per  universal  consenso  di  tutti  Siciliane  fa  salvato 
un  cavagliero  di  nation  provenzale  assai  nobile,  chiamato  Gvglielmo 
JPorcelletto,  per  la  gran  virtu  e  bonia  sua  nota  a  tutti  i  populi  di 
quella  Isola.    Angelo  di  Costanzo  Hist:  di  Napoli  I.  2,  p.  38. 

6  De  Virtute 

Quicquid  speciosum  est  non  statim  virtus  est  diccnda,  Sic 
Philippus  Marire  rcgina;  raaritus  Elizabetham  tollere  non  sustinuit, 
non  tarn  quod  sanctus  quod  clemens  at  vulgo  creditur,  quod  mitis 
ingenii,  scd  quod  prsevideret  tunc  fore  ut  Maria  Seotica  ( I 
desponsata  si  forte  in  regnum  succederet,  imperium  Britannicum 
-    Gallico  adjunctura  esset    ut  Camden.  Elizab.  fol.  13. 

12  Avaritia    vide  dc  bonis  Ecclesiasticis 

Clericorum  avaritiam  aperte  notat  Dantes  inferno.  Cant:  7. 

Mango  impcradore  de'  Tartari  per  ammacstramento  del  re  d'Er- 
minia  si  battezzo  et  mando  Aloon  suo  fratello  con  grandissirao 
essercito  per  conquistare  la  terra  santa.  sconfissc  il  calipli  de 
*  Baldac,  et  presolo  et  in  prcgione  missolo  in  una  tone  ovc  egli 
haveva  raunato  molto  tesoro,  ct  per  avaritia  non  haven  voluto  sol  I 
cavallieri  a  sua  difensione,  lo  affamd  dicendo  che  convenia  vivesa 
del  suo  tesoro,  e  di  quello  mangiasse  sanza  altra  vivanda  havere. 
Gian  Villani.  1.  6.  c.  61. 

Martino  quarto,   vide  de  bonis  Eceles. 

13  Quia 

Tertullianus  eleganter  vocat  homicidam  gularn,  et  Buppliciu 
inediai  puniendam  ait,  ctiamsi  dcua  nulla  jejuni  a  pmcepisset, 
quia  in  earn  primus  parens  lapsus  dc  jejunii*.  p.  r 





the  Englishmen  said  to  have  learnt  thire  gourmandizing  of 
Ilardiknute  the  Danish  K.  Iloliush.  in  his  life,  noted  also  of 
immoderat  feasting  by  Jovius.  hist.  L  11.  180  [L] 

the  Indians  in  Summatra  great  gluttons  renew  thire  stomack  by 
.chewing  an  hearb  call'd  Arecca  betula.    Purchas  torn.  1.  132. 

De  Libidine  -  14 

Quid  potest  esse  sanctum  iis  qui  aatatem  imbccillam,  et  praesidio  natSepavria 
indigentem  libidini  suse  depopulandam  fcedandamque  prostraverint.  se^ 
Lactant.  1.  6.  c.  23. 

in  fabulis  nostris 'notatur  Sodomitici  peccati  rex  Mempricius 

gentem  e  stupris,  illicitoque  conjugio  natam  ignovam  et  pemi-  gtaprmn. 
ciosam  patriae  futuram  ait  Bonifacius  in  ilia  egrcgia  ad  Ethelbaldum 
merciorum  regem  epist.    Malmesbur.  L  1. 

Duarum  virginum  Belgicarum  egregie  stuprum  illatum  ulcis- 
centium  exernpla  vide  apud  Thuan.  hist.  1.  66.  p.  267.  268. 

Castitas  15 

Ebba  monacha  nasum  sibi  et  labia  truncavit,  idemque  creteris 
sororibus  suasit  ut  hoc  modo  elusi  Dani  nihil  in  carum  pitdicitiam 
tcntarent.    Sto.  ex  flor.  Hist.  p.  78. 

Mors  spontanea.  16 

pocnam  eorum  apud  inferos  scitissime*  describit  Dantes  in  to  mo. 
cant:  13. 

whether  lawfull,  disputed  with  exquisite  reasoning.    Sir  Philip 
Sid.  Arcad.  I.  4.  419  &c. 

Ebrietas  .  17 

lung  Edgars  law  against  drimkennesse.  Stow.  p.  8,3.  which 
Englishmen  are  said  to  have  learn't  of  the  Panes  in  his  days. 
Flolinshed.  1.  6.  o.  23. 



of  Healths.  Sir  Phil.  Siclny.  That  barbarous  opinion  beeing  generally  among 
them  to  think  with  vice  to  cloe  honour,  and  with  activity  in  beast- 
lines  to  shew  abundance  of  love  made  most  of  them  seek  to  shew 
the  depth  of  thir  affection,  in  the  depth  of  thir  draught.  Arcad. 
1.2.  p.  201. 

ainebriandi  consuctudo,  etiam  siccam  ebrietatem  ammo  inducit. 
quod  de  Alberto  Brandeburgico  notat  Thuanus  his  verbis,  plane 
de  eo  approbation  est,  ebrietatem  violata  scmel  et  exasperate  mentis 
sanitate,  necessarid  erudelitatern  habere  comitem:  nam  cum  frequenti 
ebrietate  exire  de  potestate  sua  longo  usu  consuesset,  fiebat  ut  Losaniae 
consuetudine  durata,  immanitas  etiam  sine  vino  in  illo  valerct. 
Hist.  1.  12.  358. 

18  Do  Sqrtitudine 

fortitudo  hominis  non  in  corporc  sed  in  ratione,  quae  firmissimum 
-  hoininis  presidium  et  numimeutum  est,  consistit.  quod  hinc  liquet 
hominem  hoc  solo  rationis  adminicuio  etiam  in  robustissima  quaique 
animalia  dominari,  et  nocere  posse,  si  libet.     Lactant.  dc  opif. 
clei.  c.  3. 

Obsidionem  magdeburgae  vide  apud  Sleidan.  1.  20.  &c.  fidei  et 
fortituclinis  christians  exemplum  reperies. 

the  cause  of  valour  a  good  conscience,  for  an  evil  conscience,  as 
an  English  author  noteth  well,  will  otherwise  knaw  at  the  roots  of 
valour  like  a  worm  and  undermine  all  resolutions.  Ward*  militar. 
Sect.  7. 

v        is  Dc  Duellis 

not  certain  in  deciding  the  truth,  as  appears  by  the  combat 
fought  between  2  Scots  before  the  L,  Grey  of  W il ton  in  the  market- 
place of  Haddington,  wherin  Hamilton  that  was  almost  if  not 
cleerly  known  to  be  innocent  was  vanquish 't  audi  slain,  ami  W 

a  The  in  seems  to  have  Keen  written  after  the  remainder  *'t'  tlie  word.    Il  is  «■ 
line,  mul  tlte  tttltotypo  (which  was  taken  after  the  MS.  Volume  had  been  bomd)  bftl 
not  reproduced  it. 

OF  JOHN  MILTON.  .  5 

the  offendor  remained  victor  and  was  rewarded  by  the  Ld.  Grcv. 
Uolirish.  p.  993. 

Egregium  et  fbrtissimum  Cai  Marii  responsum  ad  Teutonehi  pro- 
vocantem  lege    Frontin.  1.  4.  c.  7. 

ljuellorum  antiquitas  pjrebande  ficlei  causa,  primus  occurrit  boni- 
facius  sub  valeniiniano  tertio  militice  dux*  qui  aetlum  proditionts  in 
sc  compertiun  singulari  ccrtamine  fideisue  probande  gratia  provocavit} 
commissoque  placidice  pcrmissu  p\_r]elio  sitperavit.  Sigon.  de  inij  ■ 
occid.  I.  12  p.  203.  an.  dom.  432. 

De  movie .  20 

Mortem  esse  jinem  certtmnarum.  Thcophrastus. 
Quietem  infeUcium     Ccesar.     et  neuter  eorum  immortalitatem 
animcd  agnovit.    Bodin:  c.  5.  I  2.    [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

De  scientia  literarum  53 

An  liceat  profanis  Seriptoribus  operam  dare,  affirmat  Socn>t: 
1.  3.  c.  16.  cum  aliis  rationibus  solidis  usus,  turn  Pauli  apost  i 
exemplo,  et  antiquissimornm  Ecclesiie  uoctorum.  vide  et  Eust  '•■ 
1.  7.  c.  7.  de  Dionysio  Alexandrino  sensit  etiam  impiua  Julianus 
qnibus  armis  labefactari  suorum  causa  posset  cum  Christianis  inter- 
dixit  poetical  rhetorical  et  philosophic  lectionem  tow  ottcetot?  yap 
inquit,  irrepol^  Kara  ryv  Trapoiplav  {3aX\ope0a.  TkeodoriL  11 
1.  3.  c.  7. 

The  noble  K.  Alfred  a  great  lover  of  learning.  Malmesbur*  Si  . 
p.  80.  his  excellent  stature  [statute?]  for  training  up  all  the  english 
till  15  years  old  in  learning    see  Speed,  in  his  Life. 

Two  Englishmen  Alcuin  and  John  by  appointment  of  V  

the  great  founded  the  two  chcifest  and  aneicntrst  universities  ol 
Europe,  Paris  and  Pavia.     Girard  Hist.  France,  1.  -1.  p.  218.  219, 

That  princes  ought  to  be  learned  especially  in  histories  <  NNtttM 
well  shew,    memoires,  1.  2.  0.  6. 

Linguarum  peritiam  etiam  in  EcclesiA  pcrutilem  esse  acnscruul 


Waldenscs,  ut  fideles  aut  pulsi  patria,  aut  a  suis  ecclesiis  missi,  ed 
aptiores  ad  docendum  cssent.  Gilles  hist.  Vaud.  c.  2.  p.  16.  [ii.] 
Ordines  Hollandiu3  in  medio  etiam  bellorum  sestu,  tanqua'm  pacatis 
rebus  no  literarum  cultural,  et  libcrorum  institutionem  rebus  adhuc 
vel  maxime  dubiis  ncgligere  viderentur,  Acaderniam  Lugduni  L>at:t~ 
vorum  instituerunt,  amplis  ex  sacro  patrimonio  vectigalibus  attri- 
butes.   Thuan.  hist,  1.  GO.  p.  81. 

55  De  Curiositate 

Qua3stiones  profundas  de  deo  quas  humana  ratio  difHcilius  inter- 
pretetur,  aut,  asscquatur,  aut  non  cogitandas,  aut  silentio  prcmcndas 
ne  in  vulgus  edantur,  deturque  hincmaterics  schismatum  in  Ecclesia, 
sapientissime  monet  Constantimis  in  epist:  ad  Alexandrian,  ct 
Arium.    Euseb:  in  ejus  vita.  1.  2.  c.  77.  et  apud  Socrat:  1.  1. 

Sophistas  noctuis  assimilat  Basil,  qui  in  rebus  minutis  ct  obscuris 
oculati  sunt  aut  ita  crcdi  volunt,  in  rebus  solidis,  et  eonspicua? 
veritatis,  scienticequc  salutaris  caecutiunt,  ilia  eniiu  QOCte  aeutum 
cernit,  interdiu  caligat.    Hexam.  Homil.  8.  107. 

Thcologorum  Parisiensium  stolidas  vclitationcs  dcpingit  Sleidanu* 
1.  3.  p.  3G. 

57  De  Pociica 

de  pocta  Anglo  subito  divinitus  facto  mira}ct  perplacida  historiola 
narratur  apud  Bedam.  Hist.  1.  4.  c.  24. 

Rex  nobilissimus  Alfredua  saxonica  poeseos  pcritissimua  Sto, 
p.  80. 

Pocticcn  ad  virtutis  studium  accendum  in  animis  homim 
cdoctam  Basileius  monet.  eVeioV;  yap  €lSe  to  jrvtOfia  to  dyiov, 
Bvadycoyov  irpbs  dperrjv  to  yipoq  t&p  dvuponrouf,  A-oi  ha  to  wpfc 
i)hoin]V  iTTippeTres  TOV  opOou  fiiov  Kaiapc\ovvTa<;  jt  zroici  ;  to  €K 
rrjs  /*eXc<>S/a$  Teprrvbv  tow  Bay  pa  an*  ryvaTtVu£w  Ira  toi  irpocnjia, 
koX  tt)$  aicofjq  to    iic   r&v   "koywv   o<j>c\tfiw  XarftirorrftK 

virohe^MfieOa,  etc.    Homil,  in  Psal.  I.  prooem. 



Xumidian  poets  Leo  Afer  in  Purchas.  torn.  2.  759.  et  Leo  A/er 
edit.  Lugdun.  1.  2.  212.  etc.  and  purchas  ex  Leone.  L  2.  torn.  2.  795. 

Epitaphia.  *  58 

77«e  Inquisitors  of  Venice  worthily  condemned  the  Booker  of  Peter 
Aretine,  called  the  Scourge  of  Princes,  for  the  filthynesse  of  them,  and 
it  is  reported  that  they  alsoe  commanded  his  horrible  Epitaph  to  bee 
blotted  out  which  was  set  in  this  church  of  St.  Luke  in  these  words ; 
Qui  giace  V  A.rethi  Poeta  Tusco, 
chi  disse  maV  oV  ogniun \  fuora  che  d.i  Bio, 
Scusandosi,  dicendo,  io  no  V  conosco. 
Here  lyes  Aretine  a  poet  of  Tuscany, 
who  spake  ill  of  all  but  God. 
Excusing  himselfe  saying  I  know  him  not. 
Notteithsianding  Ids  vitious  life  and  writings  hee  found  one  pane- 
gyrist; for  Ariosto  speakes  of  him  thus: 
JScco  il  flagello  de'i  Principi, 
11  Diviii  Pietro  Arethio. 
Pyn[e]s  Morison's  Itinerary,  edit:  Aug:  loud:  part  i.  /.  2.  Wf>:  L 
pag:  82.  [iii.] 

Upon  the  sepulchre  of  John  Boccacio,  one  of  the  refiners  of  the 
Italian  tongue,  at  Castel  Certahh  in  Italy,  these  verses  are  written^ 
his  statua  without  a  beard  carved  in  marble  being  set  upo  I  1 

Hae  sub  mole  jacent  cineres  ac  ossa  Johannis; 
^fens  sedet  ante  Deum  mervu  ornata  labotis; 
Mortalis  vitcr  gehitor  Boccacius  xlli: 
Pairia  Certaldo,  studium  fit  it  alma  Pocsis. 
Idem  Moryson,  pag.  1G4.    [This  page  is  by  Lord  Preston.] 

Rhetoric**.  W 

H  Vrj-opiKt)  cotlv  avilarpo^o^  rrj  BiaXeKTiKtj  etc :  Ar:  Rhct:  Art: 
1.  1".  c.  1°.     Ovk  tarlv  Tn-iK  yivOVS  dtyopio fA&POV  »;  PlfTOfM  v.,  *XXd 



KaOdirep  rj  AioXcktlk/].  teal  oti  y^pr)(TL^o^.  koX  otl  ov  to  irelaac  Zfr/ov 
aim}?,  aWa  to  ISelv  ia  irifiava.     Cap:  eodem. 

Rhetorica  est  facultas  in  quaque  re  videndi  quod  contingit  esse 
idoneum  ad  faciendam /idem.  cap.  2°.    [This  page  is  by  Lord  Preston.] 

61  De  Musica 

J n  Ecclesia  alternis  canere  primus  instituisse  dicitur  Ignatius 
Antiochensium  cpiscopus  post  Petrum  tertius.  Socrat:  1.  6.  c.  8. 
[Small  writing.] 

Organa  primum  in  Gallia,  Les  Ambassadeurs  de  Constantin 
emperour  Grec  apporterent  a  roy  Pepin  des  Orgues,  qu'on  n'avoit 
pas  encore  veues  en  France.     Girard.  Hist.  France.  1.  3.  p.  138. 

Guido  Aretinus  rationem  cantandi  hodiernam  adinvenit,  per 
Gamma  uth  re  mi  etc.  circa  annum  1000.  Girard.  Hist.  France. 
1.  6.  p.  337. 


quatenns  credenclum  et  obsequendum  sit  prudentum  consiliis 
sapienter  docct  Comina3us,  rationesquc  reddit  gravissimas;  crrare 
etiam  sffipissime  prudentes,  vel  affectibus  ducti,  vel  ut  amiulis  partes 
tueantur  contrarias,  vel  aliquando,  ut  fit  si  forte  corporis,  vel  animi 
habitu  sint  minus  sano.     Comin.  1.  2.  p.  94.  edit.  Gall.  Paris. 

70  Ignavia 

Ignavorum  poena  apud  inferos  qui  nihil  in  hac  vita  bene,  vel 
'     quod  insigniter  sit  malum  egcrint  describitur  a  Dante  Florentino 
perpctua  scilicet  inquietudinc  et  quodam  o^stro  incassum  agitantur. 
Lante  Inferno,  cant:  3.     [Small  writing.] 

71  De  mendacio 

nus  licet  semper  veritatcm  diccrc  sulct  vir  bonus,  inquit  Ckm€Mx  -\^r  it 
fi)j  rrore  eV  depaircla^  fiipei  KaOdircp  tarpon  irpo?  NWoGirras  bci 
ccoTrjpia  to)v  KapvovTuv  y\rcvo  erai  »j  yfrivBo?  ip€t.  etc,  Strom:  L  7. 
p.  730.' 



Salutis  publieae  causa,  hinc  illud  Torquoii  ubi  Sophroniam  intro- 
dueit  surrepti  Idoli  noxam  in  sc  trausferentem  quamvis  id  v<j:um 
non  esset,  ut  tamen  populum  Christianum  ab  internccionc  liberaret. 
Magnanima  menzogna,  or  quando  e  il  vero  si  bello  cbe  si  possa  a  tc 
preporre  ?    il  GofTredo,  Cant.  2.  stanz.  22. 

Similiter  Bernia  lletruscus,  poeta  nobills  in  Orlando  inamorcU 
I.  2.  canto.  20.  stanz;  2. 

La  verita  e  hella  neper  tenia 

Si  debbe  mat  taccr,  ne  per  vergogna. 

Quando  la  for z a  e  Vimportanzia  prema 

Tal  volta  amen  che  dirla  non  bisogna, 

Per  jit 't ion  non  cresce  il  ver  nc  seenm, 

Ise  sempre  occulta  e  dichiamar  menzogna* 

Anzi  valente  molte  volte  viene 

Et  sacio  detto  quel  che  occulta  il  tiene. 

T/ambe  due  queste  parti  di  prudentia 

11  figliuol  di  Laerte  esempio  danne  etc. 

De  furto,  et  latrocinio  r* 
furta  et  latroclnia  ita  compescuit  Edwin  us  Northumbrian  rex  ut 

into  cuilibet  liceret  ubivis  per  universum  ejus  regnum  iter  facci 

Malmesbur.  et  Sto.  [iv.] 

Alfred  also  is  said  to  have  hung  chains  of  gold  and  braceu  tfl  m 

the  erosse  high  ways  to  see  what  thee fe  durst  touch  'cm,  so  KYerOIJf 

was  justice  administerd  against  them.    Sto.  out  of  Asserius. 
Edgar  also  famous  for  this  kind  of  justice.    Stow,  [v.] 
and  before  them  all  Dunwallo  moltuutius    as  Holinikfd* 
Athelstanes  law  to  attach  such  as  stole  above  the  vah m  of  lr* 

at  above  the  age  of  12  years  Sj>ccd. 

William  the  conquerour  provided  well  against  thecving.  SfO»« 

in  Ids  20  year.    llolinsh.  p.  15. 

Do  fide  servanda  73 
Anlafv's  Bouldier  pneserveth  by  rare  exampb  his  faith  botb  to  bil 

former  captaine  and  Athehtan.    MM  his  life,    [vi  ] 
CAMD.  SOC,  0 



a  just 

Justitia  com- 


74  Be  Justitia 

Edgar  a  great  overseer  of  Justice  amoungst  his  judges,  [vii.] 
and  Edward  the  I.  who  punish  *t  almost  the  whole  magistracie  at 
once  for  thire  unjustice.    HolinsL  2S4.  285.  and  p.  312. 

against  bribing  Ed.  3.  provided.    Holinsh.  3G9.    Sir  Hen.  de 
Bath  a  famous  briber  and  corrupter  of  Justice  to  maintain  his  f 
pride  beeing  of  high  descent.    Speed,  p.  541. 

but  farre  more  renouned  was  the  lady  of  Sir  Stephen  Sere  | 
who  by  threatningto  forsake  her  husband  unlesse  he  would  discharge 
his  lieu  tenantship  of  Ireland  justly,  reclaimed  him,  and  made  him  a 
worthy  man.     Campian  hist.  Ireland  p.  93. 

K.  Hen.  5  spared  not  a  great  favorite  Bcrtrand  de  Charmont  a 
gascoin  who  by  conveying  away  one  of  the  murderers  of  the  duke 
of  Burgon  had  forfeited  his  own  life.     Spee<J.  p.  G5G.  although 
overswayd  by  a  folish  decree  of  heraldry  in  acquitting  Bail 
the  sam  fact.  657. 

remarkable  is  the  saying  of  a  worthy  knight  Sr  Thomas  R  xsksby. 
who  beeing  ordnarily  scrv'd  in  wodd'n  cups  was  wont  to  say.  1  had 
rather  drink  out  of  wood  and  pay  gold  and  silver  then  drink  out  of 
gold  and  make  wodd'n  payment.     Campion.  Hist.  Ireland  p.  91. 

75  Dc  Adulatione 

Bead  K.  Kanuts  act  by  the  sea  side  and  answer  to  flatter*  rs  in 
his  life,  [viii.] 

76  De  reprehensionc 

Ncc  acerbitate,  nec  scommatis  abstinuit  Luthcrus  intcrdum  ctiam 
parum  verecundis,    Steidan,  1.  16.  p.  261,  fix.] 

77  De  Malediceutia. 

Belli  sunt  imprimis  versiculi  ttft  finbut  Potto  Italits  Boitarfhu  in 

Orlando  Inamorato,  lib:  2*  cantum 

monetquc  prudente 

it"  inripi'. 
■ntil  )ir  OHM  fnnrrr 




Chi  ha  troppo  al  parlar  la  lingua  sciolta, 

Com''  ho  gia  detto,  spesso  se  ne  pente 
'  Che  colui  di  chi  parla,  sta  toil  volta 

Dietro  ad  un  useio,  et  ogni  cosa  sente, 

E,  quando  non  v\e  altri,  Iddio  Vascolta, 

Iddio  cite  lien  la  parte  oV  ogni  gente 

E  serba  la  vendetta  delV  otfeso 

Quando  v'e  men  pensato,  e  men  atteso 

Sempre  si  vuol  favellar  con  rispctto 
D'  ogniuno,  e  degli  absenii  sqpra  tutto 

Ne  voler  per  non  perdere  un  bel  detto 

Guadagnar  qualche  scherzo,  etfatto  brutto, 

Cite  molte  volte  Vhuom  si  truova  stretto, 

Ami  riman  coin  un  pesce  all  'asciutto, 

Quando  egli  e  sopragiunto  al  improciso, 

E  si  dipjigne  in  mille  fogge  il  visa. 

JJe  volaniafe.  78 
Tolle  voluntatem  et  erit  omnis  actus  indijferens.    Bracton3  de  Leg* 
et  Consuetud.  Aug:  1.  1.  cap:  4".     [By  Lord  Preston.] 

S'mdcrcsls.  79 

Sinderisis  is  a  natural  power  of  the  soulr,  set  in  the  highest  pari 
thereof,  moving  and  stimng  it  to  good,  and  abhorring  ceil.  And 
therefore  Sind[ep'isis  never  sinns  nor  erres.  And  this  Sindirievt  the 
Lord  put  in  man  to  the  intent  that  the  order  of  things  should  bee 
observed.     J)r  and  Student:  cap.  13:  p:  24.    J  dialogue  the  T;. 

Ratio.  80 

Reason  is  the  power  of  the  soul  that  discemcth  betwixt  good  and 
evil,  and  tbetwLvt  good  and  better,  comparing  the  other.  The  which 
alsoe  shewtth  virtues*  fly efh  vices,  lovetJi  good,  />r  and  Stndentj 
cap:  14:    Dial:  1st,  page  2-1. 

•  As  the  Latin  has  "  virtutrs  digit n  the  English  version  ihould  hare  a  clraaietfc 


81  Conscientia. 

Vid:  DT  and  Student,  Cap.  15:  pan:  25.    Dial:  lsf.  % 

82  JEquitas. 

Equity  is  a  right  wisenesse  that  considereth  all  the  particular 
circumstances  of  the  Deed,  the  which  allsoe  is  tempered  with  the 
siceetnesse  of  mercy.  Dr  and  Student,  cap:  16,  paa:  27.  Dial:  1st. 
[pp.  78,  79,  80,  81  and  82,  are  by  Lord  Preston.] 

101  Index  Oecoxomicus. 

105  De  Victu 

Quod  inter  dixerant  Apostoli  ecclesiis  esu  sanguinis,  ut  notum  est 
ex  actis  apostol:  id  esse  a  Christianis  usque  ad  Aurelii  et  Veri 
tempora  observatum  tradit  Enseb:  in  ilia  Biblidis  qua?stione  de  mar- 
tyribus  Gallieis.    hist:  1.  5.  c.  1.  gncc:    [Small  writing.] 

106  Do  Cultu 

mulieres  ne  sc  nudanto  ultra  quam  necesse  est.  vide  Clemens 
Alex:  Pjedagog.  1.  2.  c.  2.  p.  158.  et  Cyprian,  lib.  de  disciplina,  et 
habitu  virginum.    [Small  writing.] 

109  Matrimonium   vide  do  Divortio 

Apostoli  matrimonium  contraxisse  probantur  EusA:  Id-::  cccl: 
1.  3.  c.  30.  gra:c:  apud  eundem  uxores  et  liberoa  cpiscoporum  1 
natos  passim  viderc  est.  ut  1.  6.  e.  42,  de  Chfleremone  et  ejus  uxoie. 
et  filium  Demetriani  Antiochensis  eptscopi  Domnum  scdera  patris 
adeptum.  Emeb:  1.  7.  c.  30.  grsec:  vide,  et  Socrattm  1.  1.  c  11.  de 
Paplmutio  qui  corripit  quosdam  oncra  nimia  graYia  imponcntei 

Ecclesice.    Sed  Socrates  ubi  mcntionem  Tacit  matrimonii  clericorum 

de  esu  san- 



ait  intelligi  debere  de  iis  qui  uxorera  duxerant,  antequam  munus 
Ecclcsiasticum  suscepissent,  seu  ita  ipse  scripserit,  seu  quis  ppstea, 
quod  facile  fieri  potuit,  ista  de  suo  interposuerit.  vide  et  eundern. 
1.  5.  c.  22.  graec:  p.  698.  [small  writing],  et  Cedren:  p.  236  [ix.  a]. 

Pet  rum  et  Paulum  matrimonium  contraxisse  disertis  verbis  afrirmat 
Ignatius  et  quid  de  raatrimonio  sentiata  deelarat  epist:  ad  Philadelph: 
p.  94.  95.  et  Clemens  Alexand:  Strom:  3.  pag.  448.  et  Felix  qui 
presbyterium  subministrabat  sub  Decimo  cum  Victoria  conjuge  ejus 
propter  fidem  extorris  legitur  factus  apuci  Cyprian:  epist:  19. 

and  the  Preists  of  England  befoie  the  conquest,  thire  great 
impugner  John  Cremensis  beeing  detected  himselfe  of  whordom.  Holrash. 
Stow.  Hen.  I.  y.  26.  forbidden  to  marry  by  Anselme,  much  con- 
demn'd  therfor  by  an  old  writer  Hen  Huntington.  Molinsh.  p.  30 
lien.  I.  se  also  the  absurd  articles  of  the  other  synod,  p.  34.  See 
also  Mat,  Paris  against  forbidding  marriage  to  the  clergie.  Speed. 
p.  432.  and  448.  vide  ConciL  Trident.  L  8  ad  flnem  ubi  Theologi 
German i  adjunctis  Ferdinandi  imperatorls  et  ducis  Bavar.  Uteris 
matrimonium  clericorum  defendunt. 

Polygamiam  veterum  Juda^orum  propter  varia  mysteria  sub  ea 
latentia  baud  inconcessam  fuisse  ait  Justin:  mart:  Tryph:  p.  364. 

Gregorius  nyssenus  uxorem  habere  testatur  torn.  3.  de  virginitate. 

Cur  Papists  matrimonia  clero  prohibent  vide  rationcs  astutas 
ConciL  Trident.  1.  5.  p.  446.  et  662  1.  7. 

Spuridion  Episcopus  Cyprius  vir  sanctitatis  fama  celebratissimus 
sub  Constantino  quamvis  conjugem,  et  liberos  haberet  dicitur  tamen 
ov  irapa  tovto  to,  Beta  %e(pcov.    So:o))i.  I.  1.  c.  11. 

Mariage  allow'd  to  preists  in  the  councel  of  Viennc  in  franco 
more  than  900  yeares  after  Christ,  the  Pope's  legates  booing  then 
present.    Girard.  Histi  France.  1.  5.  p.  300. 

vide  responsum  Elizabeths  cum  dftoe  Andino  llUptias  propter 
rcligionis  difFcrentiam  amolicntis    Cain  p.  197. 

•  The  a  is  just  legible,  but  is  blotted  either  bj  accident  or  design, 




with  one  of  a  different  religion  dangerous,    for  hence  Gregory 
the  15th  is  so  bold  as  to  count  Prince  Charles  a  favourer  of  fclie 
Catholick  cause,,  as  he  terms  it,  and  of  the  Roman  praelacie3  because 
he  sought  in  marriage  a  daughter  of  Spain.    .Da  Chesne  Hist.  _ 
d'Angleterre.  p.  1163.    see  also  p.  1166.  ct  1167.  et  1168. 

the  marriage  with  France  also  was  no  lesse  dangerous  if  the 
conditions  obtained  by  the  Marquesse*  D'Efliat  and  Richelieu  be 
true,  as  amount  the  rest  that  the  children  should  be  bred  in  the 


^papists  religion  till  13  years  old.    Da   Chesne.  Hist.  Angle,  p. 
1180.  &c.  et  p.  1182,  1184. 

Digamiam  We  sanxit  Valentinianus.    Socrat:  1.  4.  c.  30.  ffrsec 

DO  *-< 

[Small  writing.] 

".Germa&i  antiqui  non  una  tantum  uxore  usi.  Ariovisti  enini 
duai  fuerunt  uxores  Ccesar.  comment.  1.  I.  ad  fin  cm  prope  do 
bell,  gallic,  et  Childericus  Francorum  rex.  Bernard  Hist. 
Franc.  1.  1.  p.  27. 

Conjugal  affection  rare    in  the  wife  of  Ed.  I.  in  Palestine. 

Quartam  uxorem  licet  mortuis  priori  bus  ducere  apud  Graecoa  non 
licet,  hinc  Leonem  philosophum  imperatorem  communione  pepulit 
Nicolaus  patriarch.    Jus  Grxco-l»om.  p.  103. 

the  discommoditie  of  manage.  Sec  Chaucer  marchants  tale,  ai  I 
wife  of  Baths  prologue. 

Mariage  with  Papists  dangerous  to  England  appearea  by  tl  ! 
oration  of  Fontidonius  in  the 'name  Di  luna  the  Spanish  embas- 
sador to  the  Councel  of  Trent,  wherin  he  professes  chc  il  suo  si 
marito  Maria  d'lnghilterra  non  ad  altro  fine  che  per  ridur  quell" 
Jsola  alia  religionc.    Concil.  Trident,  L  8.  691. 

Ministris  EcclesiflB  nullum  jus  fuisse  apud  Christian  '.-  Mltiquis- 

simos  ut  interessent  vel  contractibus  vel  nuptiis  celebranais  osfc 

Vkletitul.      Seldenus  Uxor  Hob.  I.  2.  c.  28,  fcdto,  ct  2\\  nempe  in  ilia*  I 

do  bonis         Pan-e  et  Pontifn-uli  se  importune  satis  immiscuere  emolumentum 
Ecclesrasticis.       "  '  ..... 

inde  sibi  ac  doininatum  captantcs  partim  ritus  ethnlOOS  ut  in  cietcns 

fere,  suscipientes,  et  vanb  quodam  judicio  semulant  & 



Concubinatus  110 

the  cause  of  houshold  disquiet.  as  it  turn'd  both  wife  and 
children  against  our  Hen  2.    Holinsh.  p.  87. 

Concubinam  imam  permitti  in  Ecclesia.  antiqua  Christiana  multis 
patrum  testimoniis  testatur  Seldemis  de  jure  nat.  et  gent.  1.  5.  c.  7. 
p.  573. 

Multos  etiam  clericos  viros  minime  malos  martyrium  etiam  passes, 
fceminas  in  domibus  habuisse  fatetur  Cypriano  adscriptus  liber  de 
singularitate  clericorum.  sect.  38. 

4  concubinas  habuit  Carolus  magnus.  Girard  Hist.  Franc.  1.  4. 
p.  229. 

concubinam  uxori  inducere,  negotio  cum  pastoribus  connmmicato 
baud  se  indignum  existimavit  Philippus  ille  Hassia;  princcps  pro- 
testantium  dux    Thuan.  Hist.  1.  41.  p.  447. 

Carolus  Martellus  princcps  bellicossimus  atque  optimus  concubina:  ]STothi  <li<:i. 
fiiius,  quo  natus  Pepinus  Caroli  magni  pater.    Hist.  Franc. 

Ferdinandus  Alphonsi  Neapolitani  regis  optimi  ex  concubinfi 
fiiius  regno  successit. 

Les  bastards  estoient  advouez,  ct  partagez  egalcment  avee  les  in  France 
legitimes,  jusques  au  temps  d'Hues  capet  en  France.     Girard  J1 
France.  1.  G.  p.  333. 

lis  ne  font  point  grande  difference  au  pays  (Tltalie  d'un  enfant  -a  lulj. 
bastard  a  un  legitime.    Fliilip.  de  Comities,  1.  7.    memoixes.  c. 
p.  515. 

De  liberis  educandis    vide*  dc  scientia  literarum.  ill 

natura  cujusquc  iniprim is  inspicienda  mv  torquond.i  BuioKUm 
deum  enim  non  omnes  ad  singula  destinat,  sed  ad  suum  quemquo 
opus  proprium  undo  Banks  e  se  '1  mondo  la  giu  ponesao  uumto  ft] 
fondameato  chc  natura  poue  &C  vide  Paradiso  cant:  8.  [Small 

*  This  tklo  is  not  in  tlio  volutin- . 



hinc  credibile  est  quod  de  Athaiuisio  traditur  puerum  seiL  inter 
pueros  episcopum  egisse  puerosque  in  maris  littorc  baptizasse. 
Socrat.    Hist.  Eccles.  1.  1.  c.  11.  ■ 

not  to  labour,  as  most  men  doe  to  make  them  bold  and  pert 
while  they  are  young  which  ripens  tliem  too  soon,  and  true  boldnes 
and  spirit  is  not  bred  but  of  vertuoiis  causes  which  are  wrought  in 
them  by  sober  discipline  to  this  purpose  Chaucer  speaking  of  feasts, 
and  revells  and  daunccs  such  things  maken  children  for  to  be  too 
soon  ripe  and  bold  as  men  may  see,  which  is  full,  perillous  &c. 
doctor  of  Phis.  tale.  fol.  58. 

112  33e  Divortio  vide  116. 

in  judicia  translatam  esse  divortii  eausam  videtur  ex  quo  Canonici 
lucrum  inde  reportare  authoritatemque  uberrimam  posse  didiccrunt. 
Hist.  Concil.  Trident.  07.  p.  [x.] 

Questiones  innumene  de  divortiis  inccrta  solutionc  tractantur 
Concil.  Trident.  1.  8.  p.  729.  <£e.  et  737.  &c. 

ritus  publici  celebrandi  matrimonii  multis  post  apostolos  sceulis 

introducti  sunt    Concil.  Trid.  1.  8.  77*2. 

vide  de  bonis  Causae  matrimonialcs  ad  civilcm  magistratum  pcrtinebant  prius- 
cecle^iji^Hci^  »•',•«  -\  •  -  • 

~    *   "  quam  ecclesiastici  per  socoruiam  pnncipum  carum  judicia  invi 
Concil  Trident.  1.  8.  772.a 

Carolus  Magnus  uxoivm  Theodoram  repudiat,  non  rcddita  ejus 
rei  cuiquam  rationo.  Girard,  Hist.  Franc.  I.  3.  p.  146.  ct  Hilde- 
gardam  dux  it. 

Post  quinquennalem  mariti  absentiam,  si  incertum  fuerit  ubl  sit. 
uxori  conceditur  cum  alio  nuptias  facere.  Manuelis  Patriarchs 
constantinop:  sententia.  Jus  GreccfrRoman:  p.  239.  vixit  Mitem 
hie  patriarcha  circa  an.  1216. 

Keligionis  causa  divortium  tier!  posse  Btatuit  Matthaeufl  Bfomchus, 
give  orthodoxus  Lta  vult  non  tantum  si  ab  altcro  descratur,  in  illo 

•  The  iir-t  lour  p:u ii^rup'n  are  in  small  writing. 



enim  negotio,  non  simplex  evhoKta  infidelis  ad  cohabitationem 
requiritur,  sed  utriusque  avvevZoKla  secundum  Pauli  sententiam; 
ait  etiam  ab  Theodoto  Patriacha  ita  statutum  vide  lib.  matrimonial, 
a  pud  Jus  Grceco  Roman,  p.  507.  [xi.] 

Guntarius  archiepiscopus  Coloniensis  et  Tergaudus  Trevirensis 
Lotliarium  Lotbaringise  ducem  repudiate  Tirberga  Yastradam  indu- 
centem  approbaverunt.    TJiuan.  1.  78.  655. 

Pro  divortio    vide  Boclin.  repub.  1.  I.e.  3. 

Renatus  Lotaringias  dux  repudiata  ob  deformitatem  et  sterilitatem 
uxore  Margareta  vivente  ea  Pbilippam  supcrinduxit;  nec  tamen  ejus 
ex  Philippa  filius  hasreditate  dejectus.    Thuan,  hist.  \  2-1.  p.  734. 

Wilhelmus  Arausionensis  [Belgian  et  protestantium  defensor] 
abdicata.  a  se  ob  mores  uxore  Anna  Mauritii  Saxonis  7  viri  filia, 
Carlotam  Borboniam  Monpenserii  filiam  duxit.  Thnan.  hist.  1.  60. 
p.  72. 

Joannes  Basilii- films  Moschorum  dux,  uxore  repudiata,  quod,  *  »«>  "  P 
quotics  vult,*  illi  moribus  patrris  licet,  novam  ducit.    Thuan.  hist.  Cui\ 
L  11,  p.  471. 

Propter  impedimentum  naturale  Vincentius  Mantuae  princeps 
Alcxandri  Farnesii  filiam  repudiat  alia  supcrinducta.  Thuan,  1.  80. 
p.  703. 

Henricus  4tus  Galliae  rex  Margaritam  uxorem  ob  mores  quamvie 
cognationis  obtentu  repudiavit,  multisque  exemplis  id  Bibi  quoque 
licere  demonstrate  quod  alii  ante  se  reges  varias  ob  causas  feeissent 
Thuan.  hist.  L  123,  p.  885. 

Dc  Scrvis  113 

Quodnam  fuerit  jus  dominorum  in  servos,    vide  Ju3i       •  •  insU- 
tut.  1.  1.  tit.  8.  §.  1. 

dc  manumissione    Justinian,  institut.  1.  1.  tit.  5.  et  G. 

scrvis  refueium  a  duris  dominia  esl  datum  le  re  cnrilij  cum  hac 
pulcra  rationc,  quod  rcipub.  expedtt  nc  sua  re  qUM  male  Qtatur. 
Justinian,  institut.  L«  1.  tit.  8.  §.  1. 
•  CAM!).  SOC.  D* 



De  Matrimonio 

To  forbid d  Polygamy  to  all  hath  more  obstinat  rigor  in  it  then 
wisdom.  Hence  Sir  Walter  RaitgUigh  well  observes  that  by  such 
rigor  the  kingdom  of  Congo  was  unhappily  diverted  from  I 
christian  religion,  which  it  willingly  at  first  cmbrac'd,  but  after 
with  great  fury  rejected,  because  plurality  of  wives  was  denyYi 
them;  1  know  not  saith  he,  how  necessarily,  but  more  .contentious!  v 
then  seasonably.  &c.    Hist,  of  the  world,  1.  2.  c.  4.  sect.  1G. 

Sebastianus  Castalio  Allobrox  Bemardinum  Ochinum  secutus, 
cujus  dialogos  latinos  fecit,  polygamlam  adstruere  videtur.  Thuan. 
Hist,  h  35.  ad  finem.  p.  271. 

Britanni  etiam  post  fidem  recepfam  conjuges  hahuere  complures, 
quo  nomine  a  Gildd  reprehenduntur  quam  plurimaa  conju^vs 
habentes,  sed  scortas  ecc.  vid.  epist.  Gild,  et  ad  finem  ;  unius 
uxoris  virura,  quod  ita  apud  nos  eontcmnitur  ecc.  ac  si  apostolus 
dixisset  virum  uxorum. 

De  clandestinis  matrimoniis  pro  irritis  habendis  vide  Thuan.  hist: 
1.  35.  p.  268.  2G9.  idem  in  Germania  sancitum.  hinc  Ferdinai 
Austrii  proles  ex  Velseni  clam   patrc  Cajsare  suscepta  pro  non 
legitima  est  habita.     Thuan.  1.  71.  p.  446. 
Incestnl.  Philippus  Hispaniae  rex  sororis  f.liam  dueit.     Thuan.  hist.  1.  7 1 . 

p.  442.  etc.  et  suns  (?) 

et  Ferdinandus  Ferdinandi  Cajsaris  filius.  idem.  hist.  1.  71.  p.  44G. 

115  '  Adult*,  riu  m 

Protestmtes,  Aureliani,  cum  ea  urhs  penes  cos  erat,  adulteihun 
mortc  puniebant:  quam  rem  aulici  adeo  graviter  tulere,  ul 
sc  ideo  a  protestantibus  alienos  luturos  professi  pint,     T/iuan:  1.  35. 
initio  libri. 

H6  Divortium 

Curpermitti  ratio  est  quia  ut  mcdiei,  et  omnes  fere  fatettlur,  CUJU8  sine  imOI* 
debet.  cst  fri,riciiis,  insuavis,  infeecundu-,  n«».\ius,  ferinu?,  Ih-dus.    N  »,-' 



Geneanthropeias.  t  1.  tract  2,  procem.  indignum  itaquc  est  vc-l 
utrumque  vol  immerentem  saltern  tarn  immani  vinculo  hrnftnn 
eonstringi.  [xii.] 

Contra  die  it  las  probe  disserit  dtviiitu  turn  es-ic  belli 
nerm  quod  vulgo  creditur.    DUcors.  I.  2.  cap.  10.  . 

Pauper-fas  150 

Britannorum  episeoporum  paupertas  Celebris  apud  Severum  Sul- 
pitium  tempore  Constantii  imper.  sacra  hist:  1  2.  p.  157.  [Small 
writing.]  [xiii.] 

See  Chaucer,    no  poverty  but  sin.    wife  of  Baths  tale.  p.  36. 

Eleemosynte.    vide  de  bonis  ecclesiasticis.  151 

Edessenorum  mira  charitas  in  captivis  Antiochensium  redimendis 
vide  apud  Pi-ocopium  Persic:  2.  nam  et  meretrices  ornatum  suum 
ad  id  impendisse  dicebantur,  et  rusticos  jumenta  sua  vendidissc. 
p.  G6.  edit.  gne.    [Small  writing.] 

Eleemosynas  nostras  hominibus  notas  ne  velimus  esse  mdel 
Cliryso&tom.  in  Gen:  orat.  8.  argumento  verissimo.  quod  homines 
plerumque  ubi  laudare  debent,  invident,  non  est  ergo  ut  de  humana 
laude  multum  speremus. 

Eleemosynarum  profusissimi  non  semper  vere  pii  ut  in  Adelbcrto 
Eporregiap  marchione  videre  est,  qui  cum  juvenis  benigni>simo  in 
paupcrcs  animo  fuisse  visus  essct,  adult  us  famse  ob  pcrlidiam  nc- 
quissima:  ferebatur.     Cu*phiian.  in  Berengario.  p.  823. 

Erronibus  mendicis  non  dandum  nt  monet  Atticus  episcopus 
Const:  toU  uiG)(XJVO^ii>o^  rtjv  airncrii',  <i\X'  oi)\'i  toi>  ifi-rropiav  mm 
fiiov  Ti}v  yaarepa  irpoTtSeiKOGL.   Soerat:  1.  7.  c.  25.   [Small  writing.] 

Eleemosyme  post  mortem  data:  in  iis  rebu?  perditis,  et  vanis 
numeral  Ariostns  quas  ad  circulum  Luna:  vulare  llngit  sine  ullo 
dantium  ffuctu.  1'elemosiHa  e,  dice,  clic  si  lassa  alcun,  ehc  kmtm  sia 
dopo  la  morte.    Cant.  34.     [Small  writing.] 



160  Deusura 

usuram  pcccare  in  naturam,  et  in  artem  ait  Dantes  .  in  na* 
quia  facit  ut  nummi  pariant  nummos  qui  est  partus  non  naturalis,  in 
artem  quia  non  laborat  etc.     vide  cant:  11.  inferno,  et  Dani 
in  eum  locum.    [Small  writing.] 

of  the  popes  cruell  usurers  or  merchands  call'd  Caursini  see 
Speed,  p.  532. 

num  licita  sit  late  disserit  Rivet  us.  preelection,  in  decalog.  276.  p. 
et  affirmativam  tuetur. 

177  Index  Politicus 


immunitatem  officiorum  civilium  clcricis  edicto  Banxit  Constan- 
tinus.    JSuseb:  hist:  1.  10.  c.  7.    [Small  writing. J 

the  form  of  state  to  he  fitted  to  the  peoples  disposition  some  live 
best  under  monarchy  others  otherwise,  so  that  the  conversions  ol 
commonwealths  happen  not  always  through  ambition  or  malice, 
as  amoung  the  Romans  who  after  thire  infancy  were  ripe  for  a  m 
free  goverment  then  monarchy,  beeing  in  a  manner  all  fit  to  be 
Ks..  afterward  growne  unruly,  and  impotent  with  overmuch  pros- 
perity were  either  for  thire  profit,  or  thire  punishment  fit  to  I 
curb'd  with  a  lordly  and  dread  full  monarchy;  which  was  the  error 
of  the  noble  Brutus  and  Cassius  who  felt  themselves  of  spirit  to  free 
an  nation  but  consider'd  not  that  tbe  nation  was  not  fit  to  be  free, 
whilst  forgetting  thire  old  justice  and  fortitude  which  was  modi  to 
rule,  they  became  slaves  to  thire  owne  ambition  and  luxuric. 

Inter  rcligtonem  ct  rempub.  divorlium  esse  non  potest.  Camthn. 
Elizab.  ad  lectorem, 

Contrariie  sentential  erat    llospitaliua    Gallia?  cancellarius  pru- 
dentissimus,     multi,  inquit,  eives  MM  poituat   qui    minime  sint 



christians,  et  qui  ab  ecclesiai  gremio  remotus  est,  non  desinit  ease 
civis,  et  pacate  vivere  possumus  cum  iis  qui  non  eaclera  sacra 
nobiscum  colunt.    Tiiuan.  hist.  L  29.  p.  74. 

Respub.  regno  potior,  perche  delle  repub.  escano  piu  huomini 
eceellenti,  che  de  regni.  perche  in  quelle  il  piu  delle  volte  si 
honora  la  virtu,  ne  regni  si  terne.  ccc.  Afacchiavel.  arte  di  guerra. 
1.  2.  p.  63. 

I  declare  it  my  opinion  in  my  discourses  upon  Livy,  that  the  yrcat 
actions  wee  read  of  in  thai  Historic,  and  that  the  excellencie  of  those 
counsels  and  atchievements,  and  the  improvement  which  mankind, 
and  as  I  may  soe  say>  humane  nature  it  sdfe  obtained  amongst  the 
Romans  did  proceed  naturally  from  their  govemement,  and  ic 
a  plaine  effect  and  consequence  of  the  perfection  of  their  Common- 
wealth. MachiaveVs  Letter  before  his  works  printed  at  London  107o, 
pag:  3\    [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

Amor  in  patriaxn 

virtus  ista  caute  a  philosophis  petenda  est  non  enim  circus  et 
earnalis  patriae  amor  ad  rapinas,  et  csedes,  et  odium  vicmarum 
gentium  rapere  nos  debet,  at  patriam  imperic,  opibus,  aul  glorisl 
augcamus  sic  enim  ethnici  fecerunt  Christianos  autcm  inter  so 
pacem  colore  oportet,  et  non  appetere  afiena  banc  ob  causam 
invebitar  in  philosophiam  Lactuntius  I.  6.  c.  G. 

of  Sr  Pierce  de  la  Mere:  see  Holinsh.  Ed.  3.  p.  410.  411.  418. 
the  Thomas  of  Woodstock  J),  of  Gloster.  the  reigne  of  Ri.  2. 
Holinsh  Richard  Fitz  Allaino  E.  of  Arundel  for  hi?  whole  lif 
noble  and  Memorable,  and  in  his  death  also  under  Rich.  2. 


Sarauaruola  esseiulosli  mandato  una  scommuniea  da  Poma  n<m 

o  , 

Tubbedi  dicendo  in  sua  difesa  una  bella  parabola  per  la  qu Sl6  I  I 
pruova  che  si  de  piu  tosto  ubbodiiv  alia  intmtionc  delle  Icggl  cho 

alio  parole.  1.  l.  p. 48.  49,  rinoVation.  deila  chieaa. 



Lombard  saith  that  laws  were  first  devis'd  to  bound  and  limit 
the  power  of  governours;  that  they  might  not  make  lust  thire  judge 
and  might  thire  minister    archeion.  c.  3. 

some  say  they  ought  to  have  reasons  added  to  them,  il  legislatore 
che  rende  ragione  del  suo  detto,  diminuiscc  l'autorita  sua,  perchc  il 
suddito  s'attacca  alia  raggione  addotta,  e  quando  crcde  haverla  ri 
luta,  pensa  d'haver  anco  levata  la  virtu  al  precetto.    Condi.  7     •  L 
1.  6.  p.  460. 

Alfred  turn'd  the  old  laws  into  english.  I  would  he  liv'd  now 
Mo,  p.  SC.       to  rid  us  of  this  norman  gibhrish.    [xiv.]    the  laws  of  MoId  utiua. 

as  Holinsh.  p.  15.  and  of  Quecnc  Martia.  see  Holinshed.  in  the 
raignc  of  Sisilius  the  son  of  Guintoline.  p.  19.  Inaa  also  of  the 
west  saxons  K:  made  many  laws  Holinshed,  1.  G.  c.  1.  and  h  il 
was  that  made  that  shamefully  and  unworthy  law  of  Pccter  pence, 
renew'd  also  by  the  murderer  QfEa  the  Mercian  so  thinking  to 
expiate  his  horrid  sins.    Holinshed,  1.  6.  c.  4.  [xv.] 

De  jure  naturali,  gentium,  et  civili  quid  statuant  jurisperiti:  vide 
Justinian,  institut.  1.  1.  tit.  2.    [Small  writing.] 

Edward  the  Confessor  rcduc't  the  laws  to  fewer,  pick't  diem, 
and  set  them  out  under  name  of  the  common  law.  HoliruL  L  8. 
c.  4. 

Lawyers  opinions  turn  with  the  times  for  private  ends.  Speed. 
614.  G15.  Rich.  2.  but  thire  end  is  to  be  COnsider*d.  p.  616. 

Kings  of  England  swornc  to  the  Laws  Bee  thire  crowning. 
King  William  the  Conq.  sworne  solemnly  the  second  time  in  the 
church  of  St.  Albans,  which  lie  presently  broke.     QoHntk.  p.  1<'. 

»  granted  also  [xyi.]  Henry  the  .1.  comming  to  the  Cfowae*   prenui  tli  to 

by  charted     abolish  the  unjust  laws  of  the  Normans  and  to  fcoHOW  thr  i. 
HolinsU  181  Edward.     IIolinaL  p.  28.     Maud  the  empressc,  doming  the 

Speed j5;  447.  Londoners  request  in  this  point  Loel  therbj  the  fore  forwmi 
^SdatnT  *hc  was  in» 10  fche  crowno-   BMuL    Steph.  p.  68.    K.  John  at 

crowning,  n^s  absolution  from  the  Popei  cure,  and  interdiction  ptomis'd 
SiS^^the  same.    fiHMk  p.  180.  m  also  p.  IS l  which 

-  performe  cost  him  all  the  trouble  that  itieoeoded  p.  189  Ml  I  p  186, 



Henry  the  3d  at  thea  betwixt  him  and  Lewis  swore  together  with 
his  protector  the  E.  of  Pemb.  for  him  that  he  would  restore  all 
the  rights  and  liberties  before  demanded  of  his  father.  Holinsh. 
p.  201.  urg'd  about  it  by  the  B.  of  Cantur.  p.  204.  205.  for  the 
which  deny'd  Lewis  the  f.  K.  refuses  to  restore  Normandy  upon 
demand  to  Hen.  3.  the  same  K.  demanded  againe  ehiftingiy 
answers  p.  205.  and  begins  to  assaile  his  barons,  ibid,  upon  a 
fifteen  granted  Hen.  3.  confirms  by  parliament  the  2  t 
magna,  and  de  Foresta.  an.  reg.  9.  p.  207.  but  cancel] 'd  by  him 
most  ignobly  when  he  came  to  age.  p.  208  Hubert  dc  Burgh  becing 
cheife  setter  on.  p.  209.  but  after  beeing  at  full  age  freely  of  his  owne 
consent  an.  reg.  21.  granted  and  confirm'd  these  2  charters. 
Holinsh.  p.  220.  also  an.  reg.  37.  with  sentence  of  excommunication 
against  the  breakers  therof.  p.  248.  with  particular  execration  which 
the  K.  used  against  him  selfe  if  he  broke  them,  ibid,  yet  afterwards 
sought  to  be  absolv'd  of  it  by  the  Pope,  and  breaks,  p.  249.  srworne 
to  it  againe  with  his  son  Prince  Edward  p.  258.  and  also  Richard 
E.  of  Cornwall  after  his  proud  denial,  p.  261,  and  curse  denonnc't 
on  the  breakers.  262.  causes  his  absolution  to  be  road.  2f>3.  accepts 
againe  the  ordinances  of  Oxford.  265.  renounces'  again,  ibid,  pi  - 
mises  again  beeing  prisoner  to  the  Barons.  2GS.  and  confirm'd  by  v. 
pari,  at  Marleborow  274.  vide  subditus. 

Mores  Gentium  180 

a  dangerous  thing,  and  an  ominous  thing,  to  imitate  with  (  &nu  -t- 
nessc  the  fashions  of  ncighour  nations:  so  the  English  ran  mooning 
after  the  French  in  Ed  ward  confessor's  time,    god  turn  the  omen  8tn,  i>  M 
from  these  days,  [xvii.] 

modestia  quidem  principis,  cum  do  mystcriis  rcligionis  ab  cruditis  cjn*  atubo- 
ct  fidelibus  cpiscopis  ad  ejus  authoritatem  rcfertur,  valde  Inudabilis  ^V.t.' 

*  The  n  ord  true*  Komi  omitted 



est.  sic  Valentinianus  cum  de  o^oovala  episcopi  ad  eum  mittercnt. 
vide  quse  respondent.  Hist:  Miscel:  1.  12.  p.  351.  el  354.  vi 
quatenus  Constantinus  se  dixerit  esse  episcopum.  Euseb:  1:  4.  vit: 
(21. 10)  Const:  c.  24.  [Small  writing.]  at  idem  Constantinus  petentUms 
Donatistis  id 1  judices  de  eontrpversiis  inter  se  ei  Carthaginis  episcopum 
ortis  claret,  rcligio[si]s$ime  respondit:  petitis  a  me  in  seculo  judi- 
cium, cum  ego  ipse  cristi  ejepectem  judicium.  Sigon.  de  oc 
imp.  I.  3. 

in  re  divina  tanquam  utto^t/;?,  et  interpres  Aidani  praeit  populo 
suo  rex  Northumbrian  Osualdus,  et  explicat,  quae  Aidanua  minus 
feliciter  expresserat  propter  linguae  imperitiam.  Beda.  et  ex  eo 

concerning  the  dutie  and  office  of  an  English  K.  how  to  govcrne 
read  the  dying  counsail  of  lien.  4.  to  his  son.  Sto. 

reges  vix  se  mortales  agnoscunt,  vix  humanura  sapiunt,  nisi  ant 
quo  die  creantur  aut  quo  moriuntur,  illo  die  humanitatem,  et 
lenitatem  simulant,  spe  popularis  aura  captandae.  hoc  mortem  ante 
oculos  habentes  male  factorum  conseientia,  quod  res  est,  fatentur, 
se  misellos  homines  esse,  vide  mortem  Gul.  1.  conquistoris  Anglue. 
apud  Stoum  nostrum,  et  abdicationem  Ed:  2: 

reprehensionis  justa3   patictia   egrcgic     Theodosius  scnio- 
Ambrosio  reprehensus  gravitcr  et  in  ordincm  redactus  ob  ca  lem 
-   Thessalonicensium.    Hist:  AfisceL'l.  13.  p.  376.     [Small  writing.] 

Counsels  unjust  he  shames  not  to  reverse,    thus  did  til 
Ed.  1.  that  cruel  statute,  which  ho  had  made  quo  waranto  ]  (  KH  iving 
himselfe  to  incurre  the  hatred  of  his  people  therby  Holinsh.  p.  230. 

ad  subditos  suos  scribens  Constantinus  Magnus  non  alio  nomine 
quam  fratres  appellat,  vide  epist,  Constantini  ad  Alexandria  S, 
Socrat:  1.  1.  c.  G.  Vide  et  Euseb:  de  vita  Constant:  1.  3  o.  L8,  in 
fine,  et  1.  3.  c.  58.  in  epist.  Constantini  ad  populum  A  niuvhenum 
initio,  et  fine,  et  alibi.  [Small  writing.]  Augustus  Imperii  f  r- 
mator  no  dominum  quidem  did  so  volohat,  et  hoc  cnim  dei  tst 
cognomen,  dieam  plane  imperatonan  dominum,  sod  quando  DOa 
coaor  ut  dominum  dei  vice  dieam;  caUorum  liber  sum  ilii,  dominus 



meus  deus  unus  est  &c.    Tertull:  ap£>loget:  p.  31.  edit:  Kigali:  qui 
pater  patriae  est  quomodo  dominus  est?  ibid: 

optimum  esse  si  rex  filium  suura  in  regnum  post  se  traditurus  sit  Dc  fa  -  k 
sic  instituat,  ut  credat  patrem  suum  regni  succcssionem  non  aetati  *toJ^J° 
ejus  sed  meritis  destinare,  nee  se  paternum  impcriura  tanquam 
prrcdam  hoereditariam,  sed  ut  virtutis  prseniium  accepturum;  proinde 
ut  sccreto  potius  apud  se  statuat,  quam  publice  declaret  quern  sit 
regni  hseredem  relicturus,  et  velut  in  dubio  relinquat  ea  opera,  per- 
ficiet,  ut  ne  puer  nimis  ferociter  se  gerat,  min usque  adulatorum 
grege  stipatus  sit,  nec  vitae  patris  insidias  struat,  cum  in  incerto  sit 
fueritne  alias  a  patre  designatus  cujus  judicium  assensus  popnli 
facile  sequatur.  hoc  modo  Joannes  Ducas  Bataza  filium  reliquit 
Thcodorum  ad  regni  spem  non  certain  nisi  post  patris  mortem,  ut 
scribit  Nicepkoms  Gregor.  1.  3.  c.  1 :  the  not  observing  this  wrought 
our  Hen.  2.  a  -world  of  disquiet  and  danger.  HolinsL  p.  76.  hinc 
Elizabetha  Mariam  scoticam  hseredem  suam  declarare  uoluit.  Can  d. 
p.  65.  67.  6S.  et  amplius  106. 

the  crowning  of  Ks  in  England  not  admitted  till  thire  oath 
receav'd  of  justice  to  be  administerd,  according  to  the  laws.  Si 
and  Molinsh  *    William  conqueror,  and  other  Ks.    K.  Rich,  the  2 
also  renew'd  his  oath  in  parliament  time  in  the  church  at  W  estmin. 
Stew.  an.  reg.  11.    Richard  the  1.    JJolinsh.  p.  118.  at  large. 

Solennitas  coronandi  Caesaris  Caroli  qu  in  Italia,    apud  -Ion 
i.  27.  [p.  106]. 

Unction  refus'd  by  Hcnricus  aucepa  a  famous  German  Emper  r, 

Cuspinian.  in  his  life. 

Crowning  of  French  Ks.    Sleidan,  L  19.  327t 

Elcctio  Germanorum  imp.  quando  ccpta  est  fieri,  t/H$pmitm* 

Otto  3:  p.  254. 

Conditiones  Crcsari  futuro  accipiend*  apud  Sfeitfan.  extant  L  1. 
p  15  Sec. 

Conditiones  itidem  impcratori  GrSBOO  future  in  so  recipteiMta 
•  "  jtnd  HolinthM"  Mrs  u  1 '»  '  tattw  margin 

.  CAM!)   BOC,  1 



Codinus  Curopalat.  dc  officiis  Constantinopol.  c.  17.  dc  coronatione 

182  Rex 

adorari  se  primum  Romanorum  esse  passum  Dioclesianum  scribir 
Sigordus  de  imp.  occid  1.  1.  cum  ante  cum  omnes  Romani  impcn<- 
tores  consulari  tantum  salutatione  contend  fuissent.  quod  alii  de- 
Constantino  asserunt. 

Christiani  antiqui  quid  senscrint  de  hoc  Justin  us  martyr  ad 
imper:  Pium  scribens  declarat  fiindaiu  super  Christi  doctrina.  Ben- 
tentia  ut  Csesari  demus  quai  Ccesaris  <leo  qua3  dei  sunt,  g6<ev  inquit 
6eov  fiev  fiovov  rirpoaKvvov/J.€v,  vfitv  £>e  7rp6?  ra  a\\a  yaipOl 
v7n]p€Tov/x€v  ubi  plane  irpoafcvvrjati1  soli  deo,  regibus  wpoOv/ioi 
vTrripeTTqatv  tribuit.    apolog:  2.  p.  6  I  . 

Leges  suas  Justinianus  alibi  vocal  oracula;  ct  nostra  divina 
constitutio.  institut.  1.  2.  tit.  2.  §.  9.  et  sacratissimum  a?rarium. 

authoritatem  rcgiam  a  Papa  non  oVpcndere  scrips!  Fl  ■ 

rentinus  in  eo  libro  cui  est  titulo  Monarehia  quern  librum  Cardi- 
nalisdcl  Poggietto  tanquam  scriptum  Hsereticum  comburi  curat  i 
testatur  JBoccatius  in  vita  Dantis  editione  priore  nam  e  posteriori 
mentio  istius  rei  omnia  est  dcleta  ab  inquisitore.     [Small  wiiti  g 
thus  far.] 

ofheium  ct  definitio  impcratori*  cgregia  est.  Jus  Grreco  Romanum, 
1.  2.  p.  178.  cx  Lib.  dc  jure  qui  est  Basil.  Constant.  Lconis  ubi  ait 
toVo?  tco  fiaaCkd  to  €V€py6TUVJ  KOt  ijriKa  TlfS  eutpytaioQ  efaTOi  >;cr;; 

Sored  Kifi&vjteveiv  -iov  (SaatXtKvi'  xaPaKT^Pa-  wd*  etUn  Orland. 
inaniorat.  del  Berni  cant.  7.  Stan*,  3  un  rc  sc  vuole  il  suo  debito 
fare,  non  h  re  vcramentc  ma  fattorc  del  popolo  etc. 

the  clcrgic  commonly  the  corrupters  of  kingly  authority  turning 
it  to  tyrannic  by  thirc  wicked  llatteiies  even  in  the  pulpit  as  An. 
rco-.  Rich.  2.  an.  21.  Stafford  bishop  of  Kxceter  in  p.uliamcnt  time 
which  was  cause  ofgrcat  mischef  to  both  K.  and  country. 



the  right  of  Ks.  to  the  goods  of  his  subjects,  the  answer  of 
Reginald  to  Ruscand  the  popes  legat.  Leg.  all  churches  are  the 
popes.  Begin,  truth,  to  defend,  but  not  to  use  them  to  serve  his 
owne  turne,  as  wee  say  all  is  the  princes,  that  is  all  is  his  to  defend, 
but  not  to  spoile.    Holinsh.  p.  253. 

Severus  Suljritius  ait  regium  nomen  semper  liberis  gentibus  fere  de  nwoai  bii 
invisum  damnatque  factum  Hebra3orum  quod  praioptarent  libertatem 
servitio  mutare.    Hist:  Sac.  1.  1.  p.  5G. 

the  first  original  of  a  K.  was  in  paternal  authority,  and  from 
thence  ought  patterne  himselfe  how  to  be  tovrard  his  subjects:  Smith. 
Com-wel.  c.  12. 

the  cause  and  reason  of  creating  kings,  see  well  expressed  in 
Haitian  Hist  France.  1.  13.  p.  719. 

no  king  can  give  away  his  k.dom  without  consent  of  the  whole 
state.  Holinsh.  191.  as  appears  also  by  the  letters  of  the  parliament 
sent  to  the  pope  with  consent  of  Edw.  1.  concirning  the  realm 
of  Scot.  Holinsh.  p.  311.  So  also  it  was  answerd  to  Hen.  3  of 
France  by  the  parlament  at  Blois.  Thuan.  hist.  03.  p.  1 SG.  nullo 
casu  alienari  a  rege  patrimonium  corona?  posse,  quippe  cujufl  rex 
tantum  sit  usufructuarius,  proprietatc  penes  rcgnum  etc.  ibid, 

whether  Monarchy  be  a  power  absolute.  Sir  Tho.  Smith 
answercth.  that  neither  it  nor  any  other  kind  of  common  wealth  il 
pure  an  absolute  in  his  kind,  no  more  then  the  element  |  UN 
in  nature,  or  the  complexions,  and  temperatures  in  q  1  Ay  DUl  Ittixt 
with  other,  for  that  nature  will  not  suffer  it.  corn-w  ealth  Eng.  0,  tl. 
And  in  the  9  c.  that  the  act  of  a  k.  neither  approved  by  the  people, 
nor  establisht  by  act  of  parliament  is  taken  for  nothing  either  t  ■ 
bind  the  k.,  his  successors,  or  his  subjects,  instancing  in  k.  John 
who  resignd  his  crowne  to  Pandulfus  Pot  Pope. 

I  re  Aragonesi  non  hanno  assoltita  fautorita  rtgifl  in  tutte  lc  cose. 
Guiecicu'din.  I.  6.  Hist.  p.  3  I  V. 

definition  of  Sir  Tho.  Smith  is    A  who  by  Mice. ,. :  > 
election  commeth  with  good  will  of  the  people  to  his  government. 



and  doth  administer  the  com.  welth  by  the  laws  of  the  same  ami 
by  equity,  and  doth  sceke  the  profit  of  the  people  as  hi?  owno.  and 
on  the  contrarie,  he  that  corns  by  force,  breaks  laws  at  his  pleasure, 
maks  other  without  consent  of  the  people,  and  regardeth  not  the 
wealth  of  the  commons,  but  the  advancement  of  himselfe, 
faction,  and  his  kindred  he  defines  for  a  tyrant,  c.  7.  See  Arist. 
eth.  9.  c.  10.  o  fAtv  7«p  rvpavvo^  tc  eavro)  crv/i6Cpov  (tkottu.  q  c : 
fiaaCkevs  to  to)v  apxofievajv* 

I  regni  che  hanno  buoni  ordini  non  danno  imperio  anoluto  a 
gli  loro  re  se  non  negli  esserciti,  perche  in  questo  luogo  boI  i  e 
necessaria  una  subita  delibcratione  &c.  Fabricio  appo  MacchiveL 
arte  di  guerra  1.  1,  p.  15. 

'  183  Subditus.    vide  rex.    vide  do  Idolatria1  et  Beditione.' 

Papa  Gregorius  Italoa  juramcnta,  quo  Leoni  Isauro  obligantur, 
Pnpa  snbditos  exolvit     Si9on:  *eg"  ItSli  L  *  * 

iuramcuto  Keenum  Chilncrico  propter  ignaviam  abrogat  Zacharias  Papa 
u  ei  ex?°  VJt*  Francis  sacrament!  rellgione  solutis.    Sijon:  reg.  Ital:  L  3.  p.  74. 

Ordines  Belgii  imperium  Philippo  abrogant,  scripto  etiam  edito 
flagse^i  eique  obedientiam  renuntiare  provincial  jubentur.  Thuan. 
I.  74,  p.  513. 

England  a  free  nation  not  only  at  home  but  from  all  claim  what- 
soever, from  Pope  bc6  HoUmheadL  101.,  et  311.  from  Kmpcrour  as 
appeares  by  meeting  the  empcrour  Sigismond  with  drawn  fm 
Hen.  5.  Speed,  p.  646. 

Parlamcnt  by  three  estates  churchmen  Lords  and  commons  first 
convocated  by  Charles  Mattel]  to  elect  him  prince  of  the  french 
about  the  year  I'M). 

The  commons  of  France  gMTO  instruction?  to  thir  knights 
and  burgesses.     For  when  Bodin  who  serv'd  lor  the  country  of 

•  This  quotation  from  Aristotle  in  in  the  margin. 

b  These  two  Articles  uro  not  in  the  \«*\\  of  the  volume  or  iu  the  UMc  at 
the  end. 



Yermandois  in  the  great  Parlament  at  JBlois  1576  had  spokn 
somtliing  displeasing  to  the  courtiers,  they  suborned  som  of  that 
countrie  to  accuse  him  for  going  against  thir  instructions.  Utuan. 
hist.  1.  53.  p.  179. 

to  say  that  the  lives  and  goods  of  the  subjects  are  in  the  hands 
of  the  K.  and  at  his  disposition  is  an  article  against  Ri.  2.  in  pari, 
a  thing  ther  said  to  be  most  tyrannous  and  unprincely.  Holinsh. 

the  liberties  of  English  subjects,  vide  de  legibus.  magna  charts, 
and  charta  de  forcsta  subscrib'd  and  seal'd  to  by  K.  John  betwixt 
stanes  and  Windsore.  Hblinsh.  p.  185.  186.  but  got  to  be  made 
void  by  the  Pope  p.  189.  but  manfully  rejected  by  the  barons, 

the  Earl  of  Chester  bare  the  sword  of  St.  Edward  before  the  an  I 
Iv.  in  token  that  he  was  Earle  of  the  palace,  and  had  autority  to 
correct  the  K.  if  he  should  see  him  swerve  from  the  limits  of 
Justice.    Holinsh.  Hen.  3d.  219.  this  sword  is  called  by   S  V 
Curtana.  p.  603.  Rich.  2. 

the  citizens  of  London  toll-free  throughout  all  England  by  the 
charter  of  Hen.  3d.  Holinsh.  p.  208.  other  thirc  liberties  confirm*.! 
by  Ed.  3.    Holinsh.  p.  343. 

the  24  govcrnours  chosen  at  the  parliament  abuse  thirc  liberty. 
Holinsh.  p.  259.  the  charters  and  liberties  confirm'd  and  seal'd 
by  Edward  1.  Holinsh.  306.  and  declared  in  Parliament,  ibid: 
certain  earls  undertak  for  him  to  scale  and  confirm  againc.  p.  307. 
confirm'd  again  in  parlament  but  the  clause  salvo  jun  COI 
offends  the  barons  and  the  whole  people  308.  renews  the  confir- 
mation of  the  charters.  309.  ibid,  and  at  Lincoln.  312.  procures  to 
be  absolved  of  his  oath  by  the  pope  313.  Ed.  3.  assents  to  good 
part  in  parliament.  Holinsh,  p.  36L  but  both  Ed.  1.  and  Ed  ■  ">• 
assent  and  confirm  absolutely  saith  Speed*  about  a  dozen  times  by 
tills  K.  596. 

of  Parliament  Liberties.     Holinsh.  452". 

the  Lib  Chauncellour  the  chcife  juMico  ami  the  Treasurer  i  1<  ctl  1 



or  depos'd  by  the  pari,  of  ancient  custom  Lomb.  Archeion.  out  of 
Mat,  Paris 

Speed  makes  the  beginning  of  Parlaments  in  Hen.  1.  days.  p. 

If  the  Pope  be  not  greater  then  a  councel,  then  is  no  K.  to  be- 
thought greater  then  the  Parlament.    See  de  Coacilils. 

Tenures  of  Fief  or  Feud  thought  to  be  brought  in  by  Charles 
the  great.  Girard.  Hist.  France  1.  4  p.  229.  although  the  original 
seem  to  be  unjust,  for  that  which  was  conquer'd  land  ought  freely 
to  be  divided  to  the  people  according  to  merit,  and  to  hold  only  by 
his  truth  and  fidelity  to  the  commonwealth.  Wherin  doubtles  the 
Roman  Agrarian  laws  are  more  noble.  Hence  that  Historian  con- 
fesses p.  232.  that  they  who  hold  in  fief,  arc  in  a  manner  servant?. 


Lenitas  riimia  rcgi  Sigcberto  Oricntalium  Saxouum  pernicioea. 
Malnubur.  1.  1.  c.  f>.  et  Stow 

prohibition  of  books  not  the  wisest  cours.  punitis  ingeniis  gliscit 
autoritas.  and  indeed  we  ever  see  that  the  forbidden  writing  is 
thought  to  be  a  certain  spark  of  truth  that  flyctK  up  in  the  face-  of 
them  that  seek  to  chok  and  tread  it  out,  wheras  a  book  autorized 
is  thought  to  be  but  the  language  of  the  time.  Sr  Fmn.  Bacon  in 
a  discours  of  church  afi'nrs. 

Prohibition  of  books  when  first  us'd.  The  storic  therof  is  in  the 
Councel  of  Trent  1.  G.  strait  from  the  beginning  p.  4"»7.  && 

Quid  utilitatis  ex  adversarioruni  lihris,  si  scmotis  odiis  caritatem, 
et  a?quitatem  induamus,  ad  dci  gloriam  capi  pofirit,  illustii 
mcnto  ostendit  Thuanu$t  dum  narral  Bibliorum  vcrsioncm  a  Bibli- 
audro,  et  Pellicano  Lnchoatam,  a  thcologis  Ilispanis  cousquc 
probatam,  ut  illam  ipsi  suppresses  vcrorura  authurum  nominiluis 
edcre  non  dubitarent.     Thmm.  hi?t.  1.  30.  p.  'JS7. 



Tyrannus.  vide.  248.  *  185 

Sigerbertus  Westsaxonum  tyrannus  leges  patrias  conculcuns 
meritas  luit  poenas    Malmesbur.  L  L  Sto. 

Richard  the  2d.  in  his  21  yeare  holding  a  violent  parlamcnt 
shorten'd  his  days,  see  in  Sto.  the  violences  of  that  pari,  sec  other 
tyrannicall  acts  an.  22.   and  of  this  pari.    Bolinsh.  490. 

see  de  Rege  out  of  Sir  Tho.  Smith,  7  et  8  e.  his  definition. 

and  Basil,  distinguishes  a  tyrant  from  a  K.  briefly  thus,  touto 
yap  hiafyepeu  rvpavvos  fiacriXeros,  on  6  fiev  to  cavrov  iraiTayodev 
GKoireZ,  6  8e  rb  rol<;  ap%op,evoL<;  axpeXifiov  iKiropL^et..    Tom.  i.  456. 

Tyrannicall  practizes  of  Rich.  2.  and  his  accomplices,  see  Holuuk. 
p.  456.  an.  reg.  11.  457.  458.  462.  487.  see  also  the  par).  HoUmL 
490.  493:  blanck  charters.  496.  and  other  tyrannical  actions,  ibid, 
see  also  the  articles  against  him  in  parliament.  Ilolin.  502.  also 
508.  [xix.] 

the  Black  Prince,  by  aiding  the  cruel  tyrant  Rector  of  Castile  /) 
brought  hirnselfe  to  all  the  mischeifs  that  fell  on  his  latter  days  nnd  t-vranU- 
his  fathers   for  besides  the  suspicion  of  poyson  in  the  voiagc  lie 
brought  himself  into  so  deep  debt,  beeing  defrauded  of  bis  - 
pay  by  the  ingratfull  tyrant,  that  he  was  forc't  to  raise  thai  sharp 
taxation  of  fuage  in  Aquitain  wherby  he  lost  the  country.    Bd€  OUI 
writers,  and  Spe.  p.  597. 

whether  it  be  lawfull  to  rise  against  a  tyrant  ?  5"  Tkomat  SmilA 
prudently  answers  that  the  common  people  judge  of  that  act 
according  to  the  event,  and  successe.  and  the  learned  according  to 
the  purpose  of  the  doers  &C.    Com-wealt.h  of  Engl,  &  ■"».    ,  N 

Ludovieus  pius  beeing  made  judge  of  a  certain  German  tyrant, 
approves  the  people  who  had  depos'd  him,  and  sets  his  younger 
brother  up  in  his  stead.     Girard.  Hist  Trance.  1.  4.  p.  848.  [xxi.] 

Scoti  proceres  missis  ad  Elizabethan!  legatis  post  Mariam  regno 
pulsam  jure  id  factum  multia  exemplis  contendunt.  Tfman.  hist. 
1.  50.  pug.  769.  [xxii.] 

of  the  deposing  of  a  tirant  and  proceeding  against  him.  KuharU 



the  2d  was  not  only  depos'd  by  parliament,  but  sute  made  by 
the  commons  that  he  might  have  judgement  decreed  against  him 
to  avoid  furder  mischeif  in  the  realm.    Holinsh.  512.  [xxiii.] 

Petrus  Martyr  in  3  c.  Jud.  eis  qui  potestatem  superiorem  eligunt 
certisque  a  legibus  reipub.  prasficiunt9  ut  hodie  electores  imperii  etc. 
licere,  si  princeps  pactis,  et  promissis  non  steterit,  cum  in  ordinem 
cogere,  ac  vi  adigere,  ut  conditiones,  et  pacta  qua?  fuerat  pollicitus, 
compleat,  idque  vel  armis  cum  aliter  fieri  non  possit.  citatque 
authorem  Polydorum  nostros  homines  aliquando  suos  reges  compu- 
Usse  ad  rationem  reddendam  pecuniae  male  administrate,  [xxiv.] 
(13. 1)  Ad  un  principe  cattivo  non  h  altro  rcmcdio  che  il  ferro.  A  curare 
An  occidere  \a  malaitia  del popolobastdno  le parole ;  e  a  quella  delpriticipe  bit  i 
il  ferro.    Maccliiavel.  discors.  c.  58.  L  1. 

nec  imperatorcm  perpetratis  flagitiis  urgere  metuunt  prill 
Germanise  quo  quidem  rex  quivis  Earopseua  nequc  major  ncque 
sanctior  potest  esse,  ne  quis  fhcinus  esse  putct  regem  jnstas  ob 
causas  accusationibus  appetere.    vide  Sleidan,  1.  18.  299. 

vitam  principum  aerumnosam,  et  perpetuo  Bollicitam,  etiam  eorum, 
qui  rem  propius  non  intuentibus,  fclices  videntur,  describit  Cominscus 
testis  persrepe  ocuiatus.     Comines.  L  8.  c.  13.  p.  684.  &c. 

De  monarchic  Galliea  ad  tyrannidem  Turcicam  rcdigciula  con- 
'  '    silium  Blesis  fuisse  initum  a  regc  Car.  9,  rcgina  matre,  aliis  tradit 
Thuanu* :   et  rationes  ejus  rei  pcrficicnda?  persane  commodas  a 
Ponceto  quodam  explicatas  fuse  narrat.     Hist:  L  57«  p.  970  [xxv.] 

Reges  a  subditis  potestate  cxuti,  aut  minuti,  nulla  rcconeili 
nc  interposito  quidem  juramcnto  postea  placantur.  cxcmpla  reeenti- 
memorial,  extant    Thuan.  hist.  I.  71.  423. 

186  Rex  Anglta  &c. 

his  right  to  France,  and  the  falsehood  of  the  Salick  law  shewing 
how  divers  Ks  of  France  came  in  by  the  femftk  ^idc.  sec  Holinsh 
Hen.  5.  p.  54)5.  546.  and  Speed  in  Hen.  5.  638. 

»  «te"nml  a  tliinl  ilK::il»lo  latter  follow,  hut  the)  arc  superfliv 



but  ratifl'd  in  full  parlameni  at  Paris  by  oaths  of  all  the  nobles. 
Speed,  p.  657 

Rex  Gallise  parlamenti  sui  perpetui  decretis  parare  necesse  habet, 
ut  scribit  Claudius  Sesellins,  quod  ille  frasnum  regis  vocat;  de  repub. 
Gallor.  If  1.  ad  quaistores  etiam  publicos  rationes  expensaruin  regi- 
arum  refemntur:  quas  i  11 1  potestatem  minuendi  habent,  si  immode- 
ratas  vel  inutiles  esse  cognoverint.    ibid,  [xxvi.] 

the  wealth  of  the  crown  without  oppression  of  subjects  may  be 
seen  in  the  expences  which  Q.  Eliz.  was  at  in  maintaining  warre 
with  her  monies  in  divers  places  abroad,  and  at  the  same  time 
paying  her  debts  at  home.    Camd.  vol.  2.  p.  '20. 

Muliercs  a  publica  rerum  administrate  ">ne  omni  excludi  solitas 
ostendit  lib.  cui  titulo  Franco  Gallia  apud  ThUan.  hist.  I.  57.  p.  969. 

victu  modico  esse  regem  decere  dicerem  nisi  apud  Cus± 
legerem,  Francos  non  ferre  regem  qui  10  drachmis  vile  pranderet 
obsonium    vide  in  vita  Berengarii.  p.  221. 

vide  veram  regis  deseriptionem,  in  Bracton  de  Lcgg:  ft  Consuelua: 
Ana:  I.  L  cap:  8.  ad'finem.    qui  irecentis  ah  hinc  annU 
tempore  sci.  Henrici  3ji.    [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

Kex  Hebraeorum  legibus  non  erat  solutus    vide  Schickard.  jus 
regium.    Thcor.  7. 

Scotland  was  at  first  an  elective  kingdom  for  a  long  time  vidi 

Hjst.  Scot. 

France  an  elective  kingdom  either  to  choose  or  to  depoee, 
Bernard  de  Girard.  Hist.  Franc,     faut  notcr,  che  jusquca  b  11;:  )y 
Capet,  tons  les  rois  de  France  out  este  eleuz  par  le  Fran*  >ii  qui  | 
sc  rescrverent  ceste  puissance  d'elire  e  bannir  e  chasser  leur  roi 
L  l.p.  19.  in  fol.  et  I  3.  p.  123  relection  cstpit  conditionelle.  el  1 
p.  129.  134 

P»y  Parlament  of  three  estates,  first  then  found  OUl  Charli  l  M  irt 
was  chosen  Prince  of  the  French.    Bern.  rf«  Girard  I.  &  p,  iOO, 
and  Pepin,  lung.  1.  3.  p.  131     Afterward  Cliarta  ihc  Si  . 
though  of  the  race  of  Charles  tKeXjfreat^deposM,  and  Uolx  N  crownM 
in  his  stead  by  the  French  aymants  micux,  M  BAllll  the  History, 

CAMD.  MM'.  I'' 



avoir  un  noveau  roy  habille  homme.  qu'  un  hereditaire  sot  et  idiot 
Girard.  Hist  Franc.  1.  5.  p.  298. 

Kead  also  the  excellent  speech  of  an  embassador  from  the  french 
to  Charles  duke  of  Lorrain  shewing  reason  why  they  had  rejected 
him  the  right  heir  to  the  crown,  and  chosen  Hugh  Capet.  Girard. 
1.  6.  p.  327.  see  also  the  like  speech  before  of  Pope  Steevn,  crowning 
Pepin.  1.  3.  134. 

'  Schola  Sorbonica  in  ccctu  GO  Theologorum  pronuntiant  contra 
regem  .pro  defensionc  religionis  anna  capi  posse.    Thuan.  L94.  391 

87  Aulici,  et  Consiliarii 

what  trust  great  courtiers  may  have  in  present  pleasing  the  K. 
with  violence  and  undue  courses  against  the  people  on  praHena 
maintaining  regal  right  the  downfall  of  Hubert  may  testil 
Speed,    see  also  of  the  Judges  in  Rich.  2.  in  the  chapter  Legea  in 
this  book. 

See  also  an  excellent  description  of  such  an  Oligarchy  of  nobles 
abusing  the  countnance  to  the  ruin  of  royal  sovranty  Arcad.  Sidney  . 
1.  2.  p.  119.  &c. 

Aidicorum  bene  merit  a  citb  frigtscere  ostendii  Upidis  vereibtu 
Boiardus  Pocta  Itahs  in  Orlando  Inamorato.  I.  2.  cant.  2Pn0. 

 •  bant  serrir  di  Cortiyiano 

La  sera  e  (jrata  c  la  ma/ Una  c  vano. 
his  addit  ejus  reformator  Jhrnia  UctniSC  IS 

Si  suole  in  Spagha  un  ttrto  detto  U&are 
(Certo  qvcgli  SpagnxioH  han  di  bei  traiH) 
Gh'un  serciyio  val  piu  eke  s'habbia  a  fart 
Che  cento  mila  milion  diffctH. 
Most  tyrants  have  ordinarily  near*  unto  their  owue  pinOM  MOM 
Minions,  of  whom  they  make  great  account  and  reckoning:  ichom 
they  use  as  spungee  to  sud  up  their  n&jecU  blood,  upon  whom  whm 
occasion  serveth  they  discharge  thenudves  to  the  end  that  Otj  . 

enfring  into/urie,  should  seise  Upon  them,  and  spare  thct      '    $  :  f 



had  Tiberius,  Sejanus ;  Nero,  Tigillin  ;  Dionyse  the  younger^ 
Phyliste ;  and  of  late  Henry  King  of  Sueden,  George  Preachon, 
ivliom  wee  read  to  have  heen  given  as  a  prey  to  the  furious  people  and 
by  them  to  have  been  rent  and  tome  in  pieces.  Bodin:  de  Repiib:  edit: 
Aug.  Lond.  1G06.  I  2.  e.  5.  p.  226. 

Antonius  Caracalla  the  Empcrour,  to  please  the  people  put  to  death 
all  the  flatterers  who  had  before  induced  him  to  hill  his  Brother, 
Neither  did  Caligula  in  better  sort  use  his  Clawbacfces.    peg:  eddeni. 

An  excellent  discourse  against  those  Senators  who  have  assisted  gr><  i 
Prinzes  in  their  tyranny  out  of  ambition  or  avarice.  Troj:  Boccalini, 
Cent:  2da,  Advert:  l:ci,  pag:  272.  [The  last  three  entries  are  in 
Lord  Preston's  writing,  J 

Astutia  politica 

homines  per  honores  feriendi  et  evertendi  artifcx  Leiccstriu! 
vide  de  Waltero  Essexio    Camd.  264,  EHzab.    etde  duce  Norfoh  i 
qui  ejus  insidiis  ad  nuptias  cum  Maria  Seota  Lnducto,    vide  ct 
eundem  p.  475.    Sic  alter  Essexius  iisdera  dolis  periit  Camd.\o\.  2, 

such  art  us'd  the  stepdam  of  Plangos  excellently  set  out  by 
Sidney.  1.  2.  35G. 

ftandolphns  Walsinghamo  per  litem  monet  at  ille  Secrct;r, ii. 
ipse  Legati  technis  jam  tandem  valediccret,  et  pceniteado  divinani 
misericordiam  implorarent  Camden,  vol.  2.  p.  27.  ipSJ  tauten  in 
repub.  viri  integri,  et  religionis  studiosi  hnbiti ,  cpio  quifl  ediactt 
qnanto  conscientire  cum  tumultu  res  politica  tracletur. 

The  wicked  policies  of  divers  deputies  and  governoun  in  Ireland 
Sec  Spenser  dialogue  of  Ireland. 

Promissorum  fidem  a  principibus  exigvndam,  quatcnus  cam  pncstari  Fulw {mania 
lis  expedit.     Ita  Scotia:  regens  pn>t<-tantium   hgatis  respond  i  t . >on,m 
Thuanus.  hist.  L  21.  p.  847.  [xxvii.]  cujus  dieti  mi  <">  MUD  ptMUtuit 
p.  G49. 

Imperii  aulici  arcana,  et  lubrioam  (idem  populo  attain  exprctse 

declarant  like  liteno  momtOrMB   ad  Colininm   missu  paulo  nnto 



lanienam  Parisiensem  quibus  si  pariaisset  non  ita  miserabili  occisione 
cum  suis  periisset  vide  Thuan.  List.  L  52.  statim  ab  initio,  p. 
805.  806. 

(2u.  2)  Ilcec  est  prudentia  scculi  istius.  quam  politicam  appellant :  utile 

quod  put  ant,  non  duhitant  honesto  prcrfevre ;  quod  utile  judicant: 
necessarium  esse  statuant,  quod  nccessarium,  licere :  Jtivet.  in  Exod. 
cap.  1. 

189    J)e  legibus    earum  dispensationibus  et  indulgentiis. 

Dispensations  in  legibus  humanis  admittuntur  propter  legifilatoris 
imperfectionem  qui  non  satis  providit  omnia,  proindc  in  legibus 
dei  non  habent  locum  cui  nihil  oecultum  itaque  dispensationes 
non  possunt  esse  indulgentiac  ad  peccatum  sed  honestissimis  e  causis 
nata3  ipsrc  proinde  honcstoe.  alioquin  indigME  prorsus  qua?  a  deo 
concederentur.  vide  concil.  Tridenf.  quae  ab  Joanne  Verduno  solide 
sunt  disputata  p.  658.  1.  7.  edit.  Loud,  adjungit  dispensationem  non 
esse  aliud  quam  legis  interpretationera.  [xxviii.] 
Contra  leges.  I  re  di  Spagna  severamente  hanno  proliibito  chc  a  le  Indie  non 
possino  passar  avocati  e  procurator!,  lioccalini  raggual.  di  Parnas. 
raggual.  79.  lo  studio  delle  leggi  per  editto  assai  noto  non  essendo 
tenuto  per  arte  liberale,  ma  mestiere,  ed  arte  veramcntc  mechanics, 
nel  mondo  introdotta  per  aflligere  ii  genero  humane  etc.  ibid,  v.  |  j 
et  raggual.  72. 

vide  et  vitam  Petrachse  a  Thomuuino  Paduano  scriptam  ubi 
Petracha  juvenis  legum  studiutn  avexsatur. 

ne  occorrcrebbono  tanti  interpret!,  ne  tanti  legulei  chc  andasscro 
con  istiracchiamcnti,  or  qua  or  la  torcendo  la  spada  dclla  giutisi  • 
gia  divenuta  di  piombo,  schichcr-.m  do  mt  to  il  giolTM)  lc  cart^  I 
trattati  c  consigli,  e  k'tturc,  c  nialanni,  chc  hanno  appc^tata  di.i 
in  guisa  chc  voglionvi  i  magazzini  ili  libri,  c  non  vi  rcsta  piu  capo 
e  via  di  cosa  alcuna,  truovandosi  in  qu.d  li  VOglif  c:i?o  (Utile  d^tt'.  inc. 
mille  parcri,  millc  decisioni  Tuna  OOBtntlk  all'  ihtft,  fetti  r  fa 
esse  d'amicizie,  o  di  roba,  o  d'honore,  e  tiratr  per  font  di  SoUtgtiem 
d'ingegno,  e  d'astutie.    Pensieri  di  Fa$90H4  1.  7.  quetl  v 



Scrive  di  piu  anch'egli,  clie  hoggidi  pure  in  Ruvo  citta  dell* 
Apulia,  i  dottori  di  leggi  non  possono  entrap  in  consiglio,  ne  havere 
uffici  publici.  E  in  Norcia  terra  dello  stato  Ecclesiastico,  quando 
s'cntra  in  consiglio  si  grida  fuori  i  letterati,  e  i  ofIicia  non  si  danno 
ne  a  Dottori,  ne  a  letterati,  e  con  tutto  cio  quella  terra  nelle  passate 
calamitose  penurie  che  afflissero  Italia  si  governo  tanto  prudenta- 
mente  che  negli  abitatori  di  essa  ne  alcuna  delle  villc  di  quel  dis- 
tretto  sentirono  gli  incomraodi  di  cosi  generale  estremita.  E  Lilio 
Grcgorio  Giraldo  in  quel  suo  discorso  che  fece  contra  le  lettere 
scrive  che  i  Velitresi  fecero  una  volta  uno  statute  che  letterato 
alcuno  nella  citta  loro  non  potesse  havere  ufficio.  II  che  sccondo 
un  altro  scrittore  decretarono  similmente  una  volta  i  Lucchesi  contra 
i  dottori  di  legge.     Tassvni  ibid. 

Natural  Equity  in  all  cases  cannot  in  a?v/  Law  bee  comprised,  but 
is  oft  times  to  bee  leaft  to  the  religious  arbitrement  of  men  expert  in 
matters  of  State.  Bodin:  Edit:  Aug:  Lend.  L.  2:  c.  5.  pog:  226. 
[Lord  Preston's  writing.] 


non  est  ut  urbs  amore  libertatis  ducta  quamvis  prseclara  facinora 
meditetur,  earn  tamen  amissam  recuperet,  ut  Cresecntio  Nomen- 
tano  antiquam  Romance  reipub.  formam  reducere  conanti  male 
successit.  Cuspin.  Otto.  3.  ut  et  poetea  Nicolao  Rentio,  qui 
tribunus  pleb.  vocari  gestiit. 

Quid  jurisconsult!  de  libertate  et  servitutc  statuant  vide  J  (t- 
nian.  1.  1.  institut.  tit.  3. 

Libertati  favet  jus  civile,  vide  Justinian,  institut  lib.  1.  kit  8. 
§.  2.  dc  servo  instituto  hserede  sine  libertate.  ct  §.  causi  manu- 
missionis  semel  probata  non  rctractctur.  ct  vide  ibid,  I.  '2.  tit.  7. 
§.3.  !? 

Tyranni  armormn  atudium  in  populo  extinguen  oonantur.  i  re 
passati  temendo  del  impeto  dc  popoli  havevano  attessoa  disannargli, 
etalienargli  dagli  essercitii  milttari  etc.  QwccianL  I  'J.  verso  la  line. 
■  Seemingly  a  mistake  for  a#fei 




A  dei  spiritu  derivanda  non  a  majoribus  aut  legibus  humanis,  lit 
excclso  animo  Romanus  martyr  nobilis  apud  Prudentium. — absit 
ut  me  nobilem  sanguis  parentum  praestet,  aut  lex  curiae  &c. 
deinde  dei  parentis  esse  ab  ore  caepimus,  cui  quisquis  servit,  ill e 
vere  est  nobilis.    Prudent:  peristepli:  Romani  martyris supplicium. 

Danies  Florentinus  optime  tractat  do  vera  nobilitate  canzon  4. 

See  Chaucer  wife  of  Baths  tale  foL  36.  and  Roman t  of  the  Rose 
hi  118. 

And  our  English  herald  GuiUhay  though  his  office  consist  cheifly 
about  titular  dignity  and  gentry  by  birth,  yet  confesses,  speaking  of 
those  whose  first  ancestors  were  raised  for  thire  worth,  that  if  they 
vant  of  thire  linage  or  titular  dignity  and  want  thire  vertues,  they 
are  but  like  base  serving  men  who  carry  on  thire  slcevs  the  hi 
some  noble  family,  yet  are  themselves  but  ignoble  persons,  p.  A  1". 

Dukes,  counts,  Marquises  ccc.  were  not  hereditary  at  first,  but 
only  places  of  goverment,  and  office  in  the  time  of  Charles  the  great. 
Girard.  Hist.  France.  1.  3.  p.  163.  L  G.  316.  [xxix.]  and  so  con- 
tinu'd  without  much  difference  between  gentlemen  and  nobl 
the  time  of  Charles  the  Simple,  about  the  year  900.  when  this 
corruption  (for  so  the  historian  calls  it,  though  himself  B  frencli 
lord)  took  beginning  and  rcceavM  accomplishment  afterward  in 
the  time  of  Hugh  Capet,  Girard.  Hist.  Franco.  1.  6.  p.  316,  tiki 
example  from  his  usurpation,  they  made  themselves  proprietaries  of 
those  counties  and  dukedomes  which  they  had  as  offices,  not  inhe- 
ritances, idem.  I.  f>.  329.  3150.  except  those  who  wore  natural  lords, 
as  of  Normandy,  Toulouse,  Flanders  Aft.  idem.  p.  333 


morum  severitas  ad  regnum  aut  impcrium  captandum  parum 
adjuvat.  Sic  Lambcrtus  Severua  integritatta  cultor  licenthmbua tui 
sseculi  moribus  foririidabilis  Ftalisc  principibua  minimc  aeceptua  oil 
Cusmu  in  Berengario.  p.  * 



Rex  195 

De  regibus  Britannis  inquit  Gildas,  ungebantui  regcs,  nen  per 
deum.  p.  119.  contra  quam  nunc  vulgus  existimat,  quoscunque 
scilicet  reges  dei  unctos  esse,  [xxx.] 

Si  in prineipatu  politico  aliqua  est  servitus,  magis  proprie  servus^o.  2) 
est  qui  protest^  quam  qui  subest :  August,  de  Civil.  Dei.  lib.  19.(21.4] 
cap.  14. 

Lenity  of  soveraigne  princes  towards  (hose  of  their  owtu 
offending  them  and  soe  in  their  danger,'  or  otherwise  tJieir  honourable 
prisoners :  unto  themselves  both  commendable  and  profi  table.  Exam j  les 
of  this.    Bo&in:  edit:  Aug.  Lond.  I  2.  c  5./>;  229.    [Lord  Preston's 

Come  dipoi  si  comincib  a  fare  il  principc  per  successione,  e  non  per  •  Shcm 
elettione  sub  it  o  commciarono  gli  heredi  a  degenerare  da  i  loro  an  i  •/./, 
e  lasciando  Vopere  virtuose  pensorono  cite  i  prencipi  non  havessi  ro  a 
fare  altro  che  superare  gli  altri  di  sontuosita  e  di  lascivia  e  dogni 
ultra  qualita  delitiosa    Machiavell:  discors.  L  1.  c.  2. 

Si  vedra  ancora  per  la  lettione  dclV  historia  romana  come  si  puo 
ordinare  nn  regno  buono ;  perche  tutti  gli  impcradori  che  iucccderono 
alV  imperio  per  herediia,  eccetto  Tito,  furono  cattivi,  quelli  die  per 
adoitione,  furono  tutti  buoni,  come  furono  <j"<  i.  cinqut  da  ^\c>vaa 
Marco.    Machiavell.  discors:  I.  1,  c.  10. 

What  Calvin  sags  of  Magistrates  a  pointed  fir  the  de  ofAi 
people,  and  to  restraint  the  insoleneie  of  Kings,  at  ia  1 1  the  I  jpl  I  W 
Lacedemonia,  the  Tribunes  in  Home,  and  the  Demarche*  in  Aihen$J 
that  they  ought  to  resist  and  impeach  their  Licentiousness'  and  cruety  ; 
is  not  at  all  applicable  to  a  right  mouarchg  where  the  life  and  h  ROW 
of  the  Prince  ought  to  be  sacred,  for  hee  epeahet  of  Aristocraiiq  and 
popular  Estates.  Bodin:  de  Bepub:  editi  Aug:  Londi  L606,  /  8.  ft.  5. 
pag:  22-1. 

Martin  Luther  declared  to  the  Proktttmi  Princu  M  Germany  thai 

*  This  entry  is  also  in  p,  109  of  tin1  MA  •"><  h  ^HB  MttCtUtd 



it  icas  not  laivfidl  for  them  to  take  up  amies  against  Charles  the  -V 
Emp:  pag:  225. 

The   keeping   of  great  Prince*  'prisoners   dangerous,  p:  220. 
— Examples  of  tins. — 

In  liege  qui  recte  regit,  nccessaria  sunt  duo  hcec,  arma  videlicet 
et  Leges,  quibus  utrumque  tempus  bcllorum  et  pacis}  recti1  possii 
guhemari:  utrumque  enim  istorum  altering  indiget  aa.vilio,  quo  tam 
res  militaris  possit  esse  in  tuto,  quam  ipsee  Leges  usu  armorum  et 
prcesidio  possint  esse  servatcc,  etc.  Dracton  L.  1°.  de  eonsuetud:  tt 
Ijegg:  Aug:  cap.  1°: — [The  last  four  entries  are  in  Lord  Presl 

197  De  religionc  qaatcmis  ad  llcmpcb:  spectat 

Laudatissimos  omnium  inter  mortale$9  eos  esse  qui  vera  Religion*: 
horninum  mentes  imbuunt,  immo  lis  etiam  laudafiores  tjui  km 
legibus  Itcgna  et  Respub:  quamvis  egregie  fundarunt  MachiaveL 
discors  I..  1.  c.  10. 
(25)     Ecclesiastiei  et  politici  rcgimiids  confusionem  (cum  scilicet  Di  \ 
trains  ministrum  Ecclesue,  minister  Ecclesies  magistratum  ogit)  et 
religioni  et  reipublicae  pariter  esse  pernicio&arn  ostendit  Dantes  i'  • 
Hetruscus  in  purgatorio.     Cant.  16. 

Solera  Jioma,  che'l  ban  mondo  feo, 
Due  soli  haver ;  chc  Vuna.  et  Valtra  strada 
facean  vedere  et  del  mondo,  et  di  J ><<> 
ZtUU  Valtro  ha  SpentO ;  et  c  giunia  la  MMH&I 
Col  pastorale ;  et  Vun  et  Valtro  interne 
per  viva  forza  inal  convien  chc  vada  : 
Perb  che  giunti  Vun  Valtro  nov  temc. 

et  paulo  post 
Di  hoggimai  c/ie  la  ('/;<".  u  «/•  Kama 
per  confondcr  in  sc  due  regginn  nti 
cade  iiel  fangO}  et  sc  brnlta  f|"  la  soma. 

■  This  rt    Intortad  by  mfaftritti 



Opmiones  hominum  de  Eeligionc,  oportere  in  Repub:  Yel  sub  Vid eL  ta 
bonis  principibus  liberas  esse;  quos  dum  laudat  Machiavellus  inter  dc 
caetera  bona  inquit,  videbis  sub  iis  tempora  aurea.  dove  ciasc  u  no noa cogead*. 
pudtenereet  difendere  quella  opinione  che  vuole  discors.  L  l.'C.  10. 

Mahometan  Religion  nothing  but  policy.    Bocalini,  Cent:2Ai  Adv: 
68 — pag:  280 — [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

Farms  Meipiib:  Status  198 

Machiavellus  longe  prcefert  Monarchies  statum  popularem,  adductis  Status 
rationibus  hand  inscitis  toto  capite.  58.  I.  1  discors.  et  I.  3.  c.  34.  nbi 
dissent  minus  errare  rempub:  quam  principcm  in  eligewhs  magis-  AoL  19^ 
tratibus  suis  ant  ministris. 

Reducere  rempub:  ad  ipsam  gubemaudi  originem  pel  bonas  leges  *) 
ferendo  vel  magistratas  in  ordinem  redigendo  eel  summam  ret  urn  ad 
arbitrium  populi  revocando  scepe  prodest.  vide  Machiavtl,  dtecom 
h  3.  c.  l.ubi  ait  salubcrrimum  id  esse  reipub:  quemadmodum  eorpoti 
misto  etc, 

Gyntfcocratiam  Reprehendit  longa  oratione  ac  rejedt    Jacobus  (21.  •*) 
Kennedus  Archiepiseopus  Sanctce  Andrea,  Buchanan.    HitL  SocL 
Soet.  L.  12,  p.  40o7  Edit.  Edinburg. 

Monorchia.  .^9 
Monarchy  is  a  Kind  of  Common  weal c  wherein  the  sov  raiguc  power 
lyeth  in  one  onclg  prince.    Jlcc  is  a  sovcraigue  wkc  c&mmemdetk  ad 
others,  and  himsclfe  can  bee  commanded  of  none.    Dodtn:  U  I. 
Edit:  Anglais  Londini  1606. 

Hard  for  2  princes  to  maintains  equal  tovereiynty  together. 
Examples  of  this:     \rid:  Bod'ni.  /».  98.    ROMul**  <f    Tetttm.  Mi 
Aurclius:  et  yFAius  Verus  made  eoreraignee  by  Antonimu  Pum. 
Nulla  fides  Regni  sociis,  ommequt  poMtai 
Impatient  consortia  $riL~  Lueftn  Phetrmi.  Uk — 

A  Triarchie  in  a  soveraignfie  may  bet firme  but  a  ftilffftty  not  .<<>.-. 

■  Milton  hn.s  Mil-titutr.l  MM  f.-i  l.M. 
CAMP.  BOC.  <; 



Has  the  reason  of  the  dicision  of  the  Raman  Empire  into  East 
and  West    ex  eodem. — See  other  example*  of  thU.  pag.  19S. — 

Examples  of  sovreigne  princes  marrying  sovcraigne  Queens,  p.  199. 

An  example  of  the  good  government  of  a  state  hy  a  Triarchy  taken 
from  Pompey,  Ccesar,  and  Crassus.p:  199. —  The  like  happened  after 
the  death  of  Ccesar  in  the  Iriumvirate  of  Augustus,  M.  Antoidnu-. 
and  Lepidus. 

It  is  not  a  monarchy  where  the  sovreigntie  is  in  2  niens  powers: 
neither  can  any  government  consist  in  that  state  if  they  fal  at  variance 
■betwixt  themselves.  Idem. 

A  Sovereigne  is  either  Lord  of  all,  or  a  King,  or  a  Tyrant:  vid: 
plura  ed:  p. 

In  a  Royal  Monarchy  the  subjects  obey  the  Laws  of  a  Monarch, 
the  Monarch  the  Laics  of  nature,  their  subjects  enjoying  their  natural 
Lihertie  and  proprietie  of  their  good.?. 

The  Lordly  Monarchy  is  that  where  the  Prince  is  become  Lor  of 
the  goods  and  persons  of  his  subjects  by  Law  of  armes  and  Lawfv&l 
warre*  governing  them  as  the  master  of  a  family  doth  his  slaves. 
The  Tyrannical  monarchy  is  where  the  prince  contemning  the  LAtfC  og 
nature  and  of  nations,  injuriously  abuses  the  pcrs<ois  of  his  fiwsbome 
subjects,  and  their  goods  as  his  owne.  the  same  difference  is  found  m 
the  Aristocrat iq  and  popular  estate.-,  p  200. 

The  Lordly  Monarchy  first  amongst  men. — In  Assyria  undrr  the 
power  of  Nimrod  called  a  great  Hunter,  an  JTebraismc  for  a  great 
The'fe.  Idem, 

JJefore  his  time  icas  noe  soce/eigue. 

The  Huns  coining  from  the  farthes  pari*  of  JScythia  brought  the 
Lordly  soveraignty  of  monarch*  into  Europe,  p.  202.—  n  <  •  <  . 
of  Seigniories  e.  p. 

a  Lordly  Monarchy  proved    itoe   '/'granny,  p.  203. — StCWfefalM 
J  J.  Gentium  uou  vera    natures. — J  he  apparil  ex  ex,mp!r  J 
Patriarchs. —  vid.  efiam  paa.  204:     Sotam  hanc  .  ."  ct  hanc  .  .  .' 

1  A  stgn  like  an  Arabic  1  rercrsH  is  here 
Three  lttters  an<l  a  lino  above  fi»ll<»\U'«l  l»y  a  different  Mpn  aie  lui 



Videsis  the  definition  of  a  Royal  Monarq  Cap.  3°.  p.  204. 

Phnie  Junior  addresses  Trojan  the  Emperor  thus,  Pruieipu 
sedem  obtines,  ne  sit  Domino  locus,  p.  ead.    iJc  eis  plura  edd  pan: — 

The  true  marke  of  a  Royal  Monarch  pan:  205. 

Aristotle  s  definition  of  a  King  dangerous,  pag:  206. 

Arisiotles  opinion  impugned  that  they  are  barbarous  people  whose 
Kings  come  by  succession  ,whilst  at  the  same  tune  Alexander  was  a  King 
by  succession  deriving  himself  from  Hercules,  Ihe  Lacedemonian? 
allsoe  from  the  stock  of  the  Heraclvles,  and  others  $c:  pag  206. 

From  the  Asiatiqs  Persians  and  Egyptians  all  humane  learning 
derived,  see  p.  206 

5  sorts  of  Kings  reckoned  up  by  Aristotle — pag:  206. 

Hie  power  of  Lacedemonian  Kings  described  pag:  207. 

The  difference  of  Monarch?  not  to  bee  gathered  by  (heir  meanes  of 
coming  to  the  State,  but  by  their  meanes  of  governing  the  State, 
pag:  ead 

Of  the  Roman  Dictators  p:  ead. 

Antigonus  the  first  of  the  successors  of  Alexander  the  Great  who 
stiled  himselfe  King,  p:  203. 

Dangerous  to  soveraignes  to  cause  their  sons,  whilst  they  themselvet 
yet  live  to  bee  crowned  Kings  ivith  them  except  in  elective  kingdotnts. 
Examples  of  it.  p.  209. 

Dangerous  allsoe  to  the  people  least  their  right  of electing  ehomld 
soe  passe  into  the  form  of  succession.  }>ag:  210.  ['I  lie  whole  ol  p. 
199  is  in  Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

Ty  renin  us.  200 

Tyrant,    this  word  derived  from  the  Grcekes  was  of  the  propriety 
thereof  Honourable,  and  in  auncient  time 'signified  no  Other  thing  then 
a  Prince  who  without  ihe  consent  of  the  people,  had  bg  force  rr  fraud 
possessed  himselfe  of  the  state;  and  of  a  Companion  male  h 
their  master:  whom  they  called  a  Tyrant,  although  he  were  a  right  ICtM 

andjust  Prince.  Bodinue.     2°  </<•  Rcjmb:  EdikAmg:  Con  fc  A  1006. 
pag:  210.  cap:  4". 



The  best  King  described  pag:  211  a. 

The  greatest  difference  betwixt  a  King  and  a  Tyrant,  given  page 
.  212.     '  "  "  %  1 

Tyrants' slaine  by  effeminate  and  weahe  persons,  and  never  safe: 
fag:  21.1 

Qui  plura  de  Tyrannis  rider e  relit,  eonsulat  vitas  Timolconis  et 
Arati  a  Phitarclw  conscripAas. 

Ti/rants  allwayes  infamous  and  detested,  Tormented  with  feare of 
future  infamie.  Therefore  Nero  wished  that  when  hee  dyed,  nay 
whilst  hee  lived,  all  the  world  might  bee  consumed  with  fire.  For  the 
cause  Demetrius  Polyorcetes  to  gratifie  the  Athenians  undertooke  a 
warre  for  the  defence  of  their  liberties  that  hee  might  bee  honoured 
by  their  icritings  after  his  death.  Several  examples  of  Tyrants 
p:  214. 

Tyrants  oftentimes  hasten  their  owne  death.  Examples  of  this, 
pay:  eddem. 

The  happy  Estate  of  a  royal  Prince.  215. 

Scipio  Affricanus  worthily  praysed  edd:  pay: 

Menander  King  of  the  Bactrians  worthily  lov' d  of  his  subjects, 
pag:  edd: 

Plinie  in  his  Panegyrical  Oration  of  Trajan  tin*  Emperour  COn- 
cludeth  his  period,  thus;  That  nothing  greater  or  better  could  be 
wisKd  for  to  the  Commonweale  then  that  the  immortal  Gods  would 
imitate  the  Life  of  Trajan.  This  excessive  prayss  though  it  tavowrt 
of  impietic  yet  procecdeth  from  the  zeals  of  a  most  famous  man 
towards  his  most  excellent  prince. — At  his  goring  out  and  coming  in 
all  Temples  were  filled  for  Ms  wellfarc,  and  hee  hhneefft  used  to 
pray  and  covenant  with  the  Gods — That  they  should  keep  and  pr$m  H 
him,  if  they  saw  it  to  bee  for  the  good  of  the  Commonweal*,  fag: 

Agcsilaus  King  of  Sparta  was  fined  by  the  Ephori/br  having 
alone  robbed  the  hearts,  and  gained  the  lofH  of  all  the  Citisw*  to  him: 
pag:  edd. 

Aristides  mr named  the  Just^  fx  ttid* 




Pkalaris  Busiris  Nero,  and  Caligula,  horrid  tyrants. p:  edd. 

Necessary  severity  not  to  bee  accounted  Tyrannie  in  a  sovereign? 
Pi^ince  but  to  be  much  commended  in  him.  p:  116. —  This  position  is 
illustrated  by  the  -example  of  Cosmo  di  Mcdices  when  he  first  iooke 
upon  him  the  Dukedom  of  Florence,  p:  edcL 

Severitie  in  a  Prince  more  ivholesomc  for  a  Commonweale  than 
Lenity.  Domitian  an  example  of  this.  Ncrva  his  successor  an 
example  of  Lenity.  Cicero  calleth  the  Licentious  Libertie  of  the 
furious  people  meer  Tyrannic,  pag:  edd. 

Div&t's  causes  inducing  Princes  to  Tyrannic,  pag:  217. 

That  a  craftie  and  subtle  man  is  a  good  King,  proved,  pag:  cad. — 
The  exampAes  of  this  Charles  the  Simple7  or  Charles  doe  nothing  oj 
France,  and  the  contrary  effects  of  Francis  the  1st  his  Governement, 
p:  edd. —  The  lenity  and  immoderate  Bounty  of  Henry  the  2d  most 
hurifull  to  France  pag:  edd. 

Pertinax  his  bounty  and  TIeliogabalus  his  youthfullnesse  ollmost 
ruined  the  Roman  Empire  p;  218. 

The" Emper ours  Severus  of  Afvike  and  Alexander  Severus  of  Syria 
by  severity  reestablish' yd  the  same  p:  edd. 

Charles  King  of  Navarre  the  most  wicked  King  of  his  time,  pag: 

Murthers  even  of  evil  and  Tyrannical  princes,  not  to  be  rewarded 
but  severely  pinrisltcd.  pag.  226. a 

Severus  the  Emperor  put  to  death  all  the vers  of  Tcrtinax. 
(Con  s  1 1  le  He  rod  ia  num). 

Vitellius  did  soe  allsoe  with  the  murthsrers  of  (talba.  vi<l.  alia 
exemplarp:  eddem.  [The  whole  of  p.  200  is  m  Lord  Preston*  $  writing."] 


Vid:  Boccalini,  Cent:  2d\  Advertising  the  6*,  pag:  176.  Excellent 
rules  for  monarchs.— pag:  181.     [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

•  A         ;»kr  in  tlir  print  Enf  tt& 



202  Athens. 

Hee  who  doubt  eth  whither  there  lee  a  God  or  not  is  not  to  be  con- 
futed with  arguments  but  with  severe  punishments  to  bee  chastized. 
Rodin:  Edit:  Any,  I  2.  c.  2.  de  Repub:  p.  224.  [Lonl  Preston's 
writing,  j 

203  Be  Aristocratia. 

Vid:  Boccalhii  Advcrtisenv*  from  Parnassus.  Cent:  2'- 
Adv:  6ta,  p.  176.     [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

204  Judex  et  Judicium. 

Criminatio,  et  misericordia  et  Ira  et  hujusmodi  animi  perturba- 
tiones  non  de  re  sunt  sed  ad  Judicem.     Quod  si  in  omnibus  Judiciis 
Tmn.  2,!o        eveniret,  quemadmodum  in  nonnxdlis  etiam  nunc  evenit  civitatibus, 
~~((7't:  mazi77ie  vero  in  iis  qucv  bene  sunt  institutes,  nihil  haberent  quod 

1G21>.  dicerent.     Otnues  euim  partim  arbitrantur  sic  byes  cavere :  partbn 

hoc  institution  fetinent,  et  prohibent  e.vij'a  rem  dieere,  ut  etiam  in 
AreopogOj  recte  sic  statuetttes.  iVbai  enim  oportet  Judicem  pet  vi  rtt  - , 
od  Tram  excitando,  vel  invidiam ,  vcl  misericord  in  m  :  quia  id  simile 
est  oc  si  quis  qua  usurus  est  rec/ula  cam  reddat  pcrversam.  Aristot: 
L.  1°  Art:  Met:  cap:  V. 

Vide  quce  Judici  in  Judicio  sunt  rclinquenda.  Eod:  Cap:  poo: 
513.    [This  page  is  Lord  Preston's  -writing.] 

205  Democrclio. 

Boccalini  Cent.  2do  Adv:  6ta pag:  176.    [Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

220  Census  el  Vectigal. 

Foderum,  parata,  et  mansionaticum  tributa  erant  a  Cafolo  RiagHO 
Italis  imposita  quibus  ille  jus  suum  in  cos  quoddan  BignifidUl 
vide  S'ujon:  reg:  Ital:  1.  7.  175.  p.  hino  fortaiM  rtgibufl  Angliaa  qua> 
eumque  per  loea  ita  faeientibus  tributuin  ojusmodi  solvit  nr.  [Small 
writing*  | 



Fifteens  and  subsidies  what  they  arc     see   Camden.  Elizab. 
p.  80. 

the  cruel  tribute  exacted  by  Hardiknut  to  be  given  to  his  ship-  ^ej|Sa£?jfMlt 

men  stow  speaks  of,  and  his  end  was  answerable,    [xxxi.]    Sto.  94.  wa£ 

read  also  the  storie  how  K  Ed.  Confessor  saw  the  devili  dauncing"  J°  ]jfc;  (!l  v.^"'1 

c  by  Godwin  on 

on  the  heap  of  monie  exacted  from  his  subjects,  wheron  he  sent  all  purpose  to 
back  to  the  owners.   Sto.  p.  95.    against  unjust  exactions  with  intent  h^^^^11 
to  enrich  the  K's  coffers  Canutus  the  dane  inveighs.     Speed,  in  his  &e  people, 
life,  [xxxii.] 

and  Harold  barefoot  by  exacting  ship  monie  lost  his  subjects  love. 
Speed,  in  his  life. 

Feeter  pence  ordaind  to  be  given  to  the  Fope  by  Inas  the  west-  Holinshed. 
saxon  the  ignominious  price  of  our  damnation,    vide  leges.    an[d]  "  6'  °"  l' 
disanulFd  by  the  noble  Edward.  3.    stow.  an.  39.  but  after  by  others 
permitted.    Holinsh.  p.  397  till  Hen.  8. 

K.  John  lost  his  subjects  love  by  taxing  and  powling  them. 

Holinsh.  p.  161.    and  the  black  prince  lost  the  love  and  obedience 

of  his  subjects  in  Guien  by  raising  fuage.    Holinsh.  p.  400.  cv_c. 

Kich.  2.  a  farmer  of  his  kingdom.    Ilolin.  49G. 

promooters  and  exacters  wovthyly  punisht  in  beginning  Hen.  8.  seealsothe 
-  i      i  i       i  it*  modcTotMtn 

an.  1.    Sto.    a  good  course  also  taken  by  Hen.  3d  to  the  same  eliect  0f  Eli 

wherby  punishing  those  that  had  bin  fraudulent  under  him  in  his       j  ; 

offices  by  fines  and  accounts  taken  of  them,  he  spar'd  his  honest 

subjects  of  a  subsidie.    Holinsh.  p.  215. 

Commissions  out  of  Parliament  devisfd  by  Wolsey  demanding 

the  sixt  of  every  mans  goods    Holinsh.  p.  891.  without  the  Icnow- 

lefre  of  the  K.  which  caus'd  divers  commotions  the  which  the  K. 


knowing  the  cause  therof  instantly  pardon'd,  utterly  disavowing  the 
unlawfull  oppression  of  his  commons. 

Tributum  a  mcretricibus  corradi  solitum,  quod  chrysnrgurum 
vocabatur,  pneclaro  consilio,  et  commento  sustulil  Anastasius  imp. 
ut  fuse  narrat  Euagrius  1.  3.  hist:  Fork.  c.  S9.    [Small  writing.] 

That  no  king  or  prince  hath  power  to  raise  a  penny  on  hia 
subjects  Without   their  consent    CominCS   a  great   statesman  and 



courtier  affirms,  and  answers  the  common  objections  that  the  cause 
may  be  suddain,  and  secret.    Memoires  5.  L  p.  403  &c. 

Subsidies  granted  with  condition  not  to  be  spent  at  the  pleasure 
of  the  prince  but  by  order  and  appointment  of  certain  Lds  appointed 
by  the  parlament,  by  them  to  be  reccav'd  and  kept.     Rich  2. 
ami  in  other    Holinsh.  452.    which  also  K.  James  of  his  own  accord  offer'd 

1)11  (rCS 

to  the  parlament  in  thire  aids  to  be  gather'd  for  recovery  of  the 
palatinat.     Chesne.  Hist,  D* Angle,  p.  1  178.  1179. 
quo&vis  marc      solitos  enim  ev^rjfieiaOat  imperatores  Constantini  urbis  a  navibus 
non  libernm    per  fauces  Ponti  pnrtereuntibus  testatur  Gregovas  Nicephorus  1.  5. 
c.  3.    [Small  writing.] 

what  the  r  even  news  of  the  custom  house  were  to  Q.  Eliz.  see 
vide  Rex         Camel.  Eliz.  vol.  2.  p.  21. 

Antrlia).  1SG.        :,  r    ,  .  4  .  , 

Moderation  in  exactions,  or  subsidies  gams  more  then  rigor,  seen 

in  the  Londoners  forwardnes    Sto.  Eliz.  in  88.  and  by  the  subsidies 

granted    Camden,  p.  00.  vol.  2.  et  56. 

populus  bene  nummatus  quictior,  interest -ergo  regis  ut  no  popu- 

lum  exactionibus  ad  paupcrtatcm  rcdigat  quandoquidem  inopia  si  qua 

res  alia  Anglos  in  rebellionem  praecipitat  ut  ait  inter  alios  Camden. 

Eliz.  vol.  2.  p.  224. 

221  llapina  sen  extorsio  pub.  vide  Papa  42  in  hidice  altero." 

William  Rufus  an  extreme  powlcr  of  his  subjects  Insomuch  that 
he  durst  compel  I  certain  converted  Jews  to  forsake  the  Faith  of 
Christ  beeing  brib'd  to  that  purpose  by  oilier  Jews  with  a  sumtne 
of  mony.     but  see  the  wise  and  godly  an? wove  of  a  com 
Jew  to  him  wherwith  he  was  confounded.    Holinsh.  p,  27. 

Kins  Ui.  1.  to  maintain  hifl  wans  unholilic  in  the  holv  land 
p.  119.  120.  and  p.  143.  Ml.  other  devises  p.  1       after  his  comming 
home,  besides  that  of  the  scale  lost  with  prsetence  of  necessity  V 
again,    this  devise  of  a  new  scale  to  bring  in  new  fees  11  a,  ;>  uls 

•  This  clearly  refers  to  uiotUcc  Cotnttoupiact  Book 



practised  a  trick  more  befitting  a  cheater  then  a  K.  for  which  he  is  Holinsh. 
boldly  reproved  of  his  nobles  p.  240.    feins  also  a  feare  of  warr  in  p;     '  " 
Gascoine  from  the  Castilians  249.    and  through  his  whole  reigne  an 
improvident  spender,  and  a  shamlesse  exactor.  253.  another  shift. 
251 :  253. 

Richard.  2.  a  continual  poller,  see  185  of  this  table,  also' Holinsh. 
496.  Henry  the  7th  not  free  of  this  fault  in  his  latter  days.  Holinsh. 
791.  by  Empston  and  Dudly.  p.  794.  His  policic  by  shew-  of  Sjwd  7 13. 
warrs  to  raise  monie.  Henry  the  8th  lesse  touch't  with  this  fault 
then  his  predecessors  disclaiming  like  a  noble  prince  the  exactions 
devis'd  by  Wolsey  without  his  privity.    Holinsh.  p.  892. 

Emston  and  Dudly  see  Speed,  p.  762.  thire  deaths.    Speed.  766. 

a  catalogue  of  the  supply's,  exactions,  and  wastings  of  Hen.  3.  Hen.  3. 
Speed,  p.  537.    ending  in  a  most  beggerly  humor  of  inviting  him- 
self to  feast  on  others  cost,  where  to  his  diet  he  must  be  presented 
and  his  queen,  and  son  with  guifts  if  fclie^  would  please  him. 
Speed,  p.  540. 

by  a  noble  ladie  countess  of  Arundel  gravely  reproov'd  Speed. 
p.  542. 

Hen.  7  making  of  intendments  for  just  and  necessary  wans  and 
therupon  demaunding  and  obtaining  great  summs  of  his  subjects, 
with  a  small  parts  thcrof  llorisht  over  a  seeming  preparation,  and 
.the  remainder  therof  (peace  insewing  which  he  always  foreknew  .y.  ;.  ;  : 
how  to  bring  about)  was  clearly  his  own  without  account,  an  un- 
kinglik  paltering  wch  should  be  provided  against  in  such  cases  by 

Commotions  for  these  reasons  want  not  a  stout  captain  as  a 
plebeian  wittily  answerd  the  duke  of  norfolk  (sent  againt  the 
commons  in  Suffolk  and  asking  that  who  was  thire  captain)  that 
Poverty  was  thire  captain  with  his  cozin  Necessity.  / Jolin.  p.  891. 
Hen.  8. 




230  Pestilentia. 

pestilent:  divinitus  immissa  temporibus  Justiniani  in  qua  immanes 
quoedam  daemonum  forma?  in  obvios  quosque  grassafttium  appare- 
bant,  qui  etiain  per  soranum  nonnullis  dicerent  se  quoque  esse  eorum 
in  numero  qui  essent  morituri  hac  peste.  Procop:  persic:  I.  2. 
[Small  writing.] 

240  Gymnastica. 

Giostro  et  \u&{  equestres  a  latinis  inventi  quorum  le^es  et  morem  describit 

lonicamento  ,    *  ,     x  °  ,         ,  , 

JNiccph.  liregoras.  1.  10.  c.  irepi  yeweews  rov  pacriKeco*;  lwavvov  rov 

veov.  eos  ludos  Sabaudi  nobiles  prim ii m  Grrecos  docuerunt  ut  tes- 
tator Caiitacuzenus  I.  1.  c.  42. 

Damnantur  ab  Innocentio  Pontifice  Sigon  :  I.  ll.deregn.  Ital: 
273.    et  ab  Eugenio.  p.  283.    [All  small  writing.] 

241  Spectacula. 

Tertullmntts  in  co  libro  quem  de  spectaculis  inscripsit  damnat 
eorum  usum  et  Christianis  occludit,  nec  verb  tantum  argumentis 
agit  (qua3  solos  ethnicos  ludos  con vel hint)  ut  cauti  et  prudentis 
Christiani  animum  religione  obstringere  debuerit,  quo  minus  poema 
aliquod  dramaticum  a  poeta  non  imperito  concinnatum  spcctare 
ausit.  illud  tarn  en  optime  facit  in  cpilogo  libri  ut  mentem  Christiani 
ad  mcliora  h.  e.  divina  et  celestia  spectacula  (qua;  tot,  et  tanta  homo 
Christianus  an'nno  pra:cipere  potest  de  adventu  Christi  de  future 
judicio  dcnsis  coloribus  contortis  incitaverit.  cundein  prorsus  lapidcm 
volvit  Cjiprianus  sen  quis  alius  libro  cadcm  de  re  compo^ito  torn.  3. 
Et  Lactantius  1.  G.  c.  20.  argumentis  nihiio  firmioribus  rem  scenicam 
universam  in  vitio  ponit.  nec  semel  quidem  CQgitasse  videtur,  coi- 
ruptelas  quidem  theatricas  mcrito  tolli  debcre,  omnem  autem  idcirco 
rerum  dramaticarum  usum  pcnitu  aboleri  nihil  necesse  esse,  ixnmo 
potius  nimis  insulsum  esset  quid  cnim  in  tola  philoso^htd  aut 
gravius  aut  Banctius  aut  sublimit  trngoedia  recte  coustitutl  quid 
utilius  ad  humanee  v'\t:v  casus  et  conversiones  uno  intuitu  spcctandos? 



idem  etiam  capite  sequenti  totam  artem  mnsicam  videtur  c  medio 
sublatam  velle. 

De  discipline  militari  -  242 

.  ,  .     re3  nautica 

Edgar  s  noble  custome  to  defend  tlie  coast  with  his  yearly  navie. 

[xxxiii.]    K.  Ed.  the  3.  commandment  for  the  exercise  of  arms  in 

every  shire.    Stow  Ed.  3.  an.  reg.  17. 

Q.  Elizabeths  excellent  care  to  furnish  her  fleet  with  implements 
out  [of]  her  own  country.  Camd.  70. 

Si  magistratus  duci  exercitus  eruptionem,  aut  pugnam  certo  cum 
periculo  omnium  imperabit  videtur  ex  officio  imperatorio  esse  sen- 
tentiam  suam  explicare,  sin  magistratus  belli  expers  obstinatius  in- 
stabit,  non  tamen  imperatori  honorificum  est  suum  exercitum  unius 
vel  etiam  populi  ob  inscitiam,  et  pertinaciam  perdere  exemplum 
vide  in  Malatesta  qui  dictatori  Florcntino  perniciosa  suadenti  parere 
noluit    Jovius.  1.  29.  p.  170.  &c. 

justice  and  abstaining  from  spoile  in  the  armie  of  Hen. 5.  Holinsfu 
p.  552.    and  the  benefit  therof.    ibid,  et  5G0. 

Selymi  milites  etiam  post  victoriam  adco  sevcris  discipline  legibus 
in  officio  permansere,  at  in  fertilissimo  autumno  horti  sine  custodibus 
tuto  relinquerentur.    Jovius  1.  17.  359. 

Militum  libidini  obtemperare  duces  non  debere,  qui  ad  verum 
militise  decus  adspirent,  et  a  justa  generosi  animi  probitate  famam 
quosrant  latrocinantiumque  militum  inimanitatem  abominentur.  et 
reliqua  apud  Jovium.  1.  12.  qure  Prosper  Columna  ad  Bcrgomum  in 
castris  egregic  concionatur. 

the  vantgard  due  to  the  Kentish  men  by  ancient  custome.  Spued, 
in  Harold,  p.  416. 

Avaritia  quantum  in  hello  noceat.    vide  Avaritia. 

Quoniam  populum  universum  in  armis  exerceri  ad  scditioncs  et 
tumultus  periculosum  est  idcirco  dclectos  quosdam  fide,  et  moribua  excipiui  tor 
per  singulus  provincias  paucoS  privilegiis  quibusdam  miiiUlibus  [[J^tS*  *' 
ornatos  ad  anna  tractauda  instructos  es.-e  oportore  monet  SetelL  dc  iafnu 
repub.  -Gallia?  1.  2. 



the  English        that  of  Harold  was  wrought  with  gold  and  precious  stones  in 
standard.        fQTm  of  aR  arinec|  man>    Speed,  p.  435.  hist.  Edward  3  at  Cressy 
erected  his  standard  of  the  dragons  gules  Speed,  p.  590. 

of  Castles  whether  profitable  in  England  see  Ilolinshed  descnpt. 
of  England  2  hook.  c.  14. 

And  of  fortresses  in  generall.  Che  le  fortezze  generalmente  sono 
molto  piu  dannose  die  utili  discorre  MacMavell:  discors:  I.  2.  c.  24. 
[By  the  same  hand  as  the  Note  from  Macchiavelli,  p.  195.  See 

~   Quag  regiones  aut  provincial  ad  fines  regni  sitaj  sunt,  iis  non 
solum  omnibus  armorum  usus  et  assidua  exercitatio  permittenda  est 
sed  etiam  pnemiis  et  immunitatibus  ad  bellicas  artes  incitandi  sunt. 
Sessel.  de  repub.  Gallise. 
-   .  The  office  of  Knighthood  Harding  sets  out  in  Arturs  round  table 

to  use  thire  bodies  to  defend  where  law  would  not  redresse.  Cronicle 
in  Arture. 

Provision  for  souldiers  after  the  warrs  to  be  considered.  Spenser 

dialogue  of  Ireland  from  p.  84.  ccc. 
(13.  l  k  2)         Meliusne  sit  inferre  helium  an  expectare  Jwstem  disputat  Alachia- 

vellus  discors.  I.  2.  c.  12. 
Am.  195,  Peditum  Robur  loupe  plus  in  hello  valere  quam  eguitum  disserii 

§  4  k  5'         Machiavellus  Discors:  I  2.  c.  18. 

243  Dc  Bello 

not  to  be  furnislit  out  by  rapine  and  pilling  the  people,  as  that 
voiage  of  R.  the  first  to  the  holie  land  most  unholily  set  out  with 
monie  dishonorably  and  impiously  got.  see  JJolinsh.  I\.  1.  p.  119. 

of  holy  wane  as  they  call  it.  to  fight  with  Turks,  and  Saracens. 
See  Gower.  1.  4.  fol.  61,  72. 

Militia  mercenaria  qua  quis  moreede  conduct  us  cuilibel  opera  fert, 
damnatur,  a  Zuinglio.  Sleidan,  lib.  3.  p.  :U'>.  et  1.  4.  60,  et  a  repub 
Bernensi.  Sleidan.  L  G.  p.  89* 



victoria  non  in  viribus  aut  peritia  militari  sita  est,  sed  ut,  qui 
bellum  susoipit,  denm  propitium  habeat.  praeclare  itaque  Trajanus 
dux  ad  Yalentem  imperatorem  qui  eum  dictis  incessemt  eoquod 
contra  Gothos  missus  cum  exercitu  male  pugnasset.  ouk  iyco,  inquit, 
co  {3aai\ev  rjTTr)/j.,at.  tu  autem  victoriam  prodidisti  qui  deo  bellum  / 
infers,  nam  Arrianus  erat  Yalens.  Theodorit.  hist.  1.  4.  c.  29.  vide 
et.  c.  30. 

moderate  and  Christian  demeanour  after  victory  see  in  Hen.  5. 
after  the  winning  of  Harflew, 

Divitias  esse  belli  nervos  negat  Macldavellus  et  vulgi  ea  de  re03-1Sc2) 
opinionem  refellit.  discors:  I.  2.  c.  10. 

Non  esse  cujusvis  Reipub  fines  imperii  bello  proferre  aliasque 
gentes  in  suam  ditionem  redigere.  immo  periculosum  esse  nisi  et 
ilia  respub:  probe  instituta  sit  et  illi  novi  imperii  acquisitio  reete 
administretur,  prudenter  ostendit  Macliiavellus  discorsi  1.  2.  c:  19: 

De  bello  Civili  244 

the  danger  of  calling  in  forraine  aids  besides  the  stone  of  the 
Saxons  and  Danes  comming  in,  is  evident  by  the  purpose  of  Lewis 
reveal'd  by  the  Count  of  Mclun  to  the  Barons  of  England.  Jfol'msJi. 
p.  193.  also  by  his  and  his  Frenchmens  carriage  toward  the  English. 
Holinsh.  p.  197.  198. 

Germani  principes  Caisari  fidem,  officiumquc  renunciant  ivligionis 
ergo  quam  ille  evertere  conatus  est.    vide  Sicilian.  1.  17.  p.  296.  &c.  vhled< 

et  Galli  protestantes  de  scntcntia  suorum  ministrorum  &c.  vide 
Concil  Trident,  p.  408.  Thuanus.  lust.  1.  24.  p.  732.  et  Jurisconsul- 
toruin,  et  Theologorum. 

et  Scoti  ccclesia:  reformatores,  Thuan.  hist.  1.  21.  p.  647, 
erat  et  IWagdeburgiae  obsidionis  tempore  scriptus  liber,  ct  in 
Gallia  denuo  editus  an.  1574  multis  rationibus  et  exemplis  ftmpli- 
ficatus,  in  quo  lice  re  ostenditur  subditis  vim  etinm  a  mngistmtibua 
extra  leges  illatam  vi  repellere.    Thuan.  hist  1.  <~>7  p.  909, 



Bcllum  non  religionis  causa,  cuiquam  inferre  se  Tyranni  simulant, 
vide  Kcclesia.  sed  in  quosdam  sub  eo  obtentu  sibi  rebelles.  Carolus  5tus  multas 
protestantium  civitates  his  insidiis  deeepit,  atque  ab  armis  continuit. 
Hist  Concil  Trident  1.  2.  p.  179.  [xxxv.] 

lis  qui  rcligionis  causa  se  armis  defendimt  multi  se  aliis  de  causis 
non  optimis  callide  se  adjungunt    Concil  Trident,  p.  408. 

245  De  Feeder atis 

Our  league  and  union  with  the  Scots  a  thing  most  profitable, 
and  naturall  ever  by  the  Pope  sought  to  be  hinderd.  See  Ascams 
Toxophilus  1.  1,  p.  38. 

by  the  Cardinal  of  Scotland.    Speed,  p.  794. 

do  Feed  ere  cum  pi  ote.stantibus  quibusvis  non  omnia  speranda.  ut 
*  jivu-haven.  c^e  rebus  qua?  ad*  Franciscopolim  transacta  sunt  compertum 
est.  Camden.  Elizab.  82.  et  passim  cum  Anglis  astute  actum  qui 
Henrico  4t0  suppetias  tulerunt,  periculis  maximis  objecti,  hue  illue 
raptati,  vide  ubi  Essexius  ad  liothomagum  castra  ponit,  et  Norrisius 
in  Britannia.  Cam*  vol.  2.  49.  50.  sed  et  prioribus  expeditionibus 
vidcrc  c§t,  ex  quo  rex  ille  Anglorum  auxilia  pctiit.  apud  Camden. 
et  vol.  2  p.  Gl.  G4.  G5.  77.  79.  89.  90. 

Ilollandi  operam  Anglis  pulchram  navant  pontificiorum  Hispa- 
norum  classe  profligate  quae  Anglorum  ad  res  turbandas  erat  ab 
Albano  instrueta.  Camden.  Eliz.  p.  232.  Arausionensis  consilia 
Joannis  Austriaci  de  invadenda  Anglia  detegit  Elizabeths,  quk 
vixdum  aliquid  de  istac  re  presenserat.  Cam.  Eliz.  267.  vide  et 
Camden,  p.  274  Elizab. 

Ed.  G.  aids  the  protectants  abroad    Hat/ward.  Ed.  G.  p.  115. 
(13.  1)  Che  si  possa  jldare  piu  dyuna  COnfed 'erat ion e  o  lean  fat  fa  eon  una 

repubn  ehc  di  quella  fa/fa  eon  zin  j'}-i?ieipe  dimostra  Mdcchiavell; 
di$Gors.  I:  I.  e.  59. 



De  Seditione    vide  Idololatria.a  et  Ecclesia.a  et  bello  246 


Contra  eos  qui  rem  evangelicam  per  sedition  em  et  tumultum  pro- 
movere  aggrediuntur,  pulchre  Lutherus  apud  Sleldan.  p.  69.  1.  5. 

Contra  omnem  seditionem  sanctissime  et  prudentissirne  turn  ad 
plebem  turn  ad  magistratum  scribit  Lutlierus  uti  causas  pariter  sedi- 
tionis  recidant.b  illi  patienter  expectando,  et  arbitris  dilectis  rem 
pacate  transigendo.  magistratus  opprimere  expilare,  divexare  crude- 
liter  populum  tandem  si  desinat.    Sleldan.  1.  5.  p.  71.  &e. 

Csesar  protestantium  proeeres  se  defendentes  multis  criminibus 
onerat  rebcllione  scil.  et  magistratus  contemptu.  &c  Sleldan.  L  17. 
292.  293.  &c.  ut  hodie  fit.  [xxxvi.] 

Popull  tumultus  llbertatls  recuperanda>.  occaslo  scape  fuit,  idedqm 
nec  reprehend  endl^  quia  justas  oh  causas  et  queer elas  pherunque  fnud. 
teste  Machlavello.  Io  dlco,  che  coloro  eke  dannono  i  tumulii  tra  i 
nobili  et  la  plebc,  ml  par  che  biasimino  quelle  cose  che  furono  prima 
caglone  dl  tencre  libera  Roma,  perche  buone  leggi  nascevana  da  quel 
tumultij  $c.  discoid.  I.  1.  c.  4. 

De  urbe  obsiclenda  et  obscssa  247 

Quo  modo  Hicardus  Brixiam  undique  oppugnatam  defender! t 
paucis  militibus  contra  duos  excrcitus    vide  Jovlum  1.  18.  p.  319/ 

Quo  modo  Vcronam  M.  Antonius  Columna  adversus  Gallos  et 
Venetos  defendcrit  vide  Jovlum  lib.  18.  397.  &c. 

Tyranaus.  248 

Utrum  llceat  a  tyranno  deficere.    Rlnaldo  Conte  de  Caserta  havendo  (21.  10) 
Manfredi  re  dl  jSTapoll  comcsso  adulterlo  con  la  mOglia  del  Conte, 
■mando  a  Roma  al  papa  e  al  Re  Carlo  (Cangioia  che  vl  furono  insieme, 

a  These  titles  are  not  in  the  volume. 

b  The  MS.  has  tQscribafitcidant,  the  scribant  being  deleted;  hut  aver  the  i  ;i 
small  t  has  hcen  placed. 

0  A  misprint  in  the  printed  volume  cited;  it  should  be  p.  894, 



un  suo  amico  che  proponesse  avanti  al  Collegio,  s'era  lecito  ad  un 
vassallo  in  tal  caso  risentirsi  del  suo  re  e  mancargli  di  fede  ;  U  die 
fu  deciso  e  da  cavaglieri  e  da  letterati,  die  come  il  vasallo  e  teuuto 
spendere  la  vita  ell  sangue  per  lo  re  suo,  cosl  a  Vincontro  il  buon  re 
e  tenuto  cVosservare  leanza  col  vassallo  t  e  offendend.olo  in  cosl  atroce- 
Ingiuria,  e  lecito  al  vassallo  mancargli  di  fede ;  p>erche  in  ted  caso  il 
re  perde  il  iitulo  di  re,  e  si  veste  il  nome  di  tiranno.  Angelo  di  Cos- 
tanzo.    histor.  di  napoli  I.  1.  p.  16. 

Whither  it  be  lawfull  to  lay  violent  hands  upon  a  Tyrant;  and 
after  Ids  death  to  disanul  all  his  acts,  decrees,  and  laws.  Vid.  Bodiu: 
de  Bepub:  Edit;  Aug;  Lend;  A°  1606.  cap:  5°:  lib:  2:  pag:  218.— 

A  Tyrant  defined  pag:  edd. — 

If  a  subject  will  invade  or  take  upon  [Aim]  the  State  of  a  King  by 
any  means  whatsoever  bee  hee  good  or  bad  the  laics  of  God  and  man 
pronounce  it  lawfull  to  kill  him  p.  219. 

The  Valerian  Law  published  at  the  request  of  Pub.  Valerius  Pub- 
licola  and  iddch  makes  it  lawfull  for  any  one  to  kill  a  Tyrant,  and 
after  the  fact  to  bee  tryed,  and  the  Law  of  Solon  which  forbids  the 
killing  of  a  Tyrant  without  form  of  Justice  compared,  pag:  edd. — 

Whether  a  lawfull  Prince  Tyrannizing  may  of  Ids  subjects  be  law- 
fully slaine  or  not.  It  is  lawfull  to  slay  him  who  is  not  absolute 
soveraigny  but  him  who  is  it  is  not.  p.  212. 

A  Prince  Tyrannizing  may  by  another  strange  Prince  be  lawfull'/ 
slaine.  jk  220.    examples  of  this  Hercules  Moses  e]-c. 

That  it  is  not  lawful  for  subjects  either  by  way  of  fact  or  Justice  to 
attempt  anything  against  the  honour  Life  or  dignity  of  their  soveraian 
prince,  bee  [he]  never  soe  evil  or  wicket,  proved  p:  edd  cm. 

'Treason  the  thoughts  of  it  punish1  d  with  death. — Examples  out 
of  sacred  and  prof ane  story,  pag:  22,*>. — examples  of  2  French  Gen- 
tlemen; of  NdbuchodonosoT)  and  Soul,  Jehu  224. 

The  Essei  the  most  learned  man  amongst  the  Jews  ( their  name 
imports  the  true  execution  of  the  Law  of  God)  their  opinion  of  the 
sacrcdness  of  Soveraignes.  p.  224. 



Diogenes  the  Cyniq,  his  discourse  to  JJionysius  the  younger  then 
living  in  exile  at  Corinth  ;  with  the  miserable  condition  of  Tyrant 
whilst  hee  lives  described,  p,  226. 

The  policie  of  some  Tyrants  to  avert  from  themselves  the  peoples 
rage,  exemplified  in  severed  persons,  p:  226. 

If  the  conspirators  begin  their  fury  at  the  person  of  the  Tyrant, 
then  his  whole  fam  ily  is  usually  rooted  out.  p.  edd. 

Cicero  questions  whither  a  good  man  ought  to  come  into  the  Councel 
of  a  Tyrant  consulting  even  of  good  and  profitable  matters,  f  p.  227. 
—  The.  question  solved,  p.  e\_d]d. 

That  not  only  the  aood  acts  and,  decrees  of  Tyrants,  but  even  their 
Evil  acts  and  decrees  alsoe  are  oftentimes  of  necessity  after  their  deaths 
to  bee  retained  in  a  Commonweale.  pag.  227 . 

It  is  the  opinion  of  lawyers  that  the  successouvs  of  Tyrants  are 
bound  to  all  their  predecessors  have  justly  promised  or  done,  but  not 
to  the  rest,  p:  edd. — 

Constantine  the  Emperour  abrogated  such  things  as  Lycinius  the 
Tyrant  had  unjustly  decreed,  but  confirmed  the  rest.  The  like  was 
done  by  Theodosius  the  younger  and  Arcadius  the  Emperours  after 
the  death  of  the  Tyrant  Maximus  by  their  liands. 

Quce  Tyrannus  contra  jus  rescripsit  noil  valcre  preecipimits  :  legi- 
timis  ejus  rescriptis  non  impugnandis. pag:  eddem.  [All  in  this  page 
except  the  first  entry  is  Lord  Preston's  writing.] 

Dc  re  nauticd  el  naufragiis.  De  UUoribus  etiam  el  mart.  249 

Quid  genus  hoc  hominum,  quidce  hutte  tain  barbara  moron 
Permittit  patria  ?  hospitio  prohibemur  arena* 

slJncid.  1.  /.  [540]. 
Gripus  the  fisherman  and  Truchalio  the  slave  a*  they  were  brought 
upon  the  stage  by  Plautus  quarelling  about  a  bagge  found  in  the  sea. 
Gr.  Mare  quidem  commune  certo  *st  omnibus.     Tr.  Assentio, 
Qui  minks  kunc  communcm  mild  quceso  oportet  esse  vidulum  ?  In 
mari  inventum  est.     Commune  est.     In  Rudente.  Act:  A0, 
CAM D.  SOC.  1 



Latojia  alloquens  Rusticos  Lycios  sic  ait: — apv.d  Ovid:  Meiam: 
lib.  G° 

Quid proh.ibetis  aguas?     Usus  communis  Aquarian  est. 
Nec  solem  propriiun  Katura,  nec  Aera  fecit, 
Nec  tenues  undas.    In  publico  munera  veni. 
—  —  —  Littusque  rpgamus 

Innocuum  et  cunciis  ttndamgue  auramque  potentem. 

JEneid.  I  7.  [229]. 
Phoenicides  etiam  ajntd  Athen<zum  Dipnosop>h:  S  ait: 
Trjv  fiev  Od\acrrLcr~^av  koivtjv  eivai.    [All  the  above  and  the  second 
heading  at  the  top  of  the  page  are  Lord  Preston's  writing.] 
)     The  evil  custom  in  England,  of  sciseing  all  shipwrecks  as  forfeit 
to  the  Lord  of  the  Afamwr^  or  the  inhabitants  of  that  shoar,  where  the 
ship  was  wrackty  was  also  among  the  Greeks  of  Constantinople,  hut' 
condemn  d  and  forbidden  by  a  severe  edict  of  Andronicus  Comnauu 
the  Empcrour,  though  otherwise  a  most  cruell  tyrant.    See  Nicetaa 
Choniates  in  his  life,  page  209t!l  of  his  history.    Edit:  Paris.  foL 



malum  morale  4 
de  viro  bono  5. 
De  viriutc.  6. 
Ayaritia  12 
Gula  13-7 
Libido  1 4 
Castitas  15. 
Ebrietas  17 

De  morte  spontanea  16. 
De  fortitudine  18. 
De  Dnellis  19. 
De  morte  20. 

De  scientia  literarum.  53.  54. 
De  curiositate.  55 
De  Poetica  57. 
Epitaplaa  58. 


De  musica.  61. 
De  Iiheioricd.  50 
Consultatio.  67 
Iffnavia  70 

De  mendacia  7 1 . 

De  furto  72. 

De  fide  servanda  73. 

De  Justitiu.  et  contra.  74. 

De  adulatione  75 

De  reprebensione  7G 

De  maledicentid.  11 

De  voluniate  78. 

Sindercsis  79. 

Ratio  80. 

Conscieniia  81. 

JE  quit  as  82 

OECON'OMiCUS  p.  101 

De  victu  105.  ubi  de  ciborum  usu. 
De  cultu  corporis  10G 
matrimonium  109.  114 
De  educandis  liberis  1 1 1 
De  Divortio  112.  116 
Concubinatus  110 

De  Servis  113. 
Adnlterium  115 
Divitia.  11S 

Paupertas  150. 
Eleemosyoee.  151. 
de  us r.ra  160 



POLITIC  US  p.  177. 

Respublica.  177. 
Amor  in  patriam  178. 
Leges.  179.  1S9. 
mores  gentium  180 
I)e  dispensationibus  sive  indulgentiis 

Bex  181.  182.  186.  195. 
sufrditus  183. 

Lenitas  184.  ubi  de  libris  prohibitis 

TyrannuslS5.  248.  200. 

Aulici  187. 

Consiliarii  1 87 

Astutia  Politica  188. 

nobilitas  191 

Libertas  183.  190. 

Severitas.  193. 

Servitus  190 

De  Beliijione  quatenus  ad  rcmpul. 

special.  197. 
Vavius  rcipub.  Status.  198 

Census  et  Tectigal.  220  ubi  de  niari 

libero  an  non 
Extortio  publica.  221.— 
MonarcJua.—ldd.  200.  201. 
De atheis  tractandis  in  JRepullica.  202 : 
De  Arktocratia.  203. 
Judex  et  Judicium  201 
Democratia,  205, 
Pestilentia  230 
Gymnastica  240. 
Spectacula  241. 
Disciplina  militaris  242 
De  bello.  243 
De  bcllo  civili  244. 
De  fcederatis  245 
De  seditione  246 

De  urbe  obsidenda  et  obsessa  247. 
De  re  nauticd  et  navfragiis.  249 
De  Uttoribus  et  mari  sensu  politico: 




Mane  citus  lect^jm  fuge. 

Tritum  est  vetustate  proverbium.  dilueulo  surgcre  saluberrimura  est  nec 
sane  minus  veruni  qnam  antiquum:  etenim  si  ordine  supputare  conabor 
liujus  rei  singulas  utilitntes  opus  ardui  laboris  obire  videbor:  surge  igitur, 
surge  deses  nec  semper  teneai  te  mollis  lectus,  nescis  quot  oblectamenta 
praabet  aurora.  Oculos  delectare  cupis?  aspiee  soleni  purpureo  colore 
oricnteni,  ccelum  puruin,  et  salubre,  herfoescentem  agrorum  viriditatem, 
florum  omnium  varietatem.  Aures  juyare  velis?  audi  argutos  auvium 
concentus  et  leves  apum  susurros  :  naiibus  placebis  ?  non  satiari  possis 
suavitate  odorum  qui  e  floribus  efflantur.  Quod  si  haec  non  arrident, 
rationem  salutis  tuaa  aliquantuliim  qua?so  ducas ;  quippc  summo  mane 
cubitu  surgere  ad  firmam  corporis  yaletudinem  non  parum  conducit  studijs 
verb  aptissimum  est  tunc  enim  in  numerato  habes  ingenium  Praterea 
boni  regis  est  non  somno  immodico  corpus  saginare  et  vitam  feriatam  et 
laboris  vacuam  transigere,  at  reipublicre  cum  nocte  turn  die  consulere  ut 
argute  hortatur  Theocritus 

Et  apud  Homerum  sic  Somnus  olloquitur  Agamemnonem 
Ei/£e<s  A'rpeos  vie  baitypoi'os  t7TTrobuj,ioio 

Quam  ob  causam  fabulantur  poeta>  Tithonum,  et  Cephftluru  Aurora  ainasios 
fuisse?  nimirura  quod  somni  parcissimi  fuere,  et  relicto  cubili  agros  pictos 
et  herbis  multicoloribus  yestitos  obire  soliti  sunt.  !Sod  at  somnolentiam 
radicitus  extirparem  ut  nullum  Bius  vestigium  rclinquerem,  incommoda 



immmera  qua1-  ab  ilia  omnibus  manant  nudare  aggrediar.  haac  ingeniuni 
vegetnm  hebctat,  et  obtundit  et  memorial  quam  plurimum  officit ;  ecquid 
turpius  esse  possit  quam  in  multum  diem  stertere  et  maximam  vitse  tuge 
partem  morti  tanquam  sacrare  ?  At  tu  qui  summee  rei  praxes  tuum  est 
potissimum  yigilias  agere  et  somnum  arctiorem  obrepentem  penitus  dis- 
cutere.  multi  enim,  hostes  somno  gravi  pressos  et  quasi  sepultos  adorti 
occisionc  occiderunt  et  tantam  strageni  ediderunt  ut  ant  visu  aut  auditu 
miserabile  sit.  Millia  liujusmodi  exenipla,  qua3  inexhausto  stylo  narrare 
potui,  mihi  suppeditautur.  At  si  Asianam  illam  exuberantiam,  irnitabor, 
profectb  vereor  ne  miseros  auditores  taedio  enecabo. 

Carmina  Elegiaca. 

Surge,  age  surge,  leves,  jam  convenit,  excute  sonmos, 

Lux  oritur,  tepidi  fulcra  relinque  tori 
Jam  canit  excubitor  gallus  pr&muncius  ales 

Solis  et  invigilans  ad  sua  quemque  vocat 
Flammiger  Eois  Titan  caput  exerit  undis  o 

Et  spargit  nitidum  lasta  per' arva  jubar 
Daulias  argutum  modulatur  ab  ilicc  carmen 

Edit  et  excultos  mitis  alauda  modos 
Jam  rosa  fragrantes  spirat  silvestris  odores 

Jam  redolent  yiolce  luxuriatque  seges 
Ecce  novo  campos  zephyritis  gramme  Tescit 

Fertilis,  et  vitreo  rore  madescit  humus 
Scgnes  inveuias  molli  vix  talia  lecto 

Cum  preniat  imbellis  lumina  fessa  sopor 
Ulic  languentes  abrumpunt  somuia  somnos 

Et  turbant  animum  fcristio  mull  a  tuum 
lllic  tabifici  generantar  seminu  morbi 

Qui  pote  torpentem  posse  yalere  virum 



Surge  age  surge,  leves  jam  conveaiit,  excute  somnos 
Lux  oritur,  tepidi  fulcra  reliucpoe  tori 

Ignauus  satrapana  cledeeet  inelytum  v 
Somnus  qui  poptolo  miiltifido  prreest. 
Duui  Dauni  veteris  filius  armiger 

Stratus  purpurea  p  .  .  .  buit  , 

Audax  Eurialus  Warn  et  impiger 
Invasere  cati  ne«e|e  sub  horrid  a 
Torpentes  Rutilos  castraque  Volscia 
Hinc  csedes  oritur  clamor  et  absonus 

In  the  first  and  nineteenth  lines  the  word  excaie  has  been  substituted  for  arcere, 
which  word  seems  originally  to  have  ended  the  first  line.  In  the  fifteenth  line  the 
word  somnum  has  been  altered  to  somnos.  In  the  twenty-fourth  line  portions  of  the 
paper  (which  is  very  much  decayed)  are  torn  away.,  and  the  verse  is  necessarily  now 




Arsgelo    di    Costanzo.      Hist,  di 

Xapoli,  5,24$ 
Ariosto,  151 

Arlstoteles.  Bhet  (59,)  (204) 
.  ...  .  Eth.  162 
Ascham  (Koger),  245 
Athemeus,  249 
Augustinus  de  Civ.  Dei,  195 

Bacon  (Sir  Francis),  184 
Basil.  55,  57,  165 
Bed*;  57,  181 

Bemi,  Orlando  Inamorato,(71  ,)(187)  ' 
Boccacio  (in  vita  Dantis),  182 
feoccalini,  (187,)  189,  (197,)  (201,) 

(203,)  (205) 
Bodinus  (de  Republica),  (20,)  112, 

(167,)  (189,  195,  199,  200,202, 


Boiardo,  (77,)  (187) 

Bracton  (Hen.  de),  Liber  de  legg. 

et  consuetudd.  Anglia?,  (78,  1S6, 


Buchanan  (Geo.),  Hist,  of  Scotland. 

Ca-sar,  20 

Camden  (Wm),  History  of  Elizabeth, 
6,  109,  177,  181,  186,  188,  220,  \ 
242.  245 

1  The  numbers  in  parentheses  ref( 

Campian,  74 

Cantacuzenus,  240 

Cedren  (?  Geo.  Cedreni  compendium 

historiarum),  109 
Chaucer     (Geoffrey),  Canterbury 

Tales,  109,  111,  150,  191 
Chrysostom  (John).  151 
Clemens  Alexandrinus,  71,  10C,  109 
Codinus,  181 

Comines  (Philip  de),  Memoires  (ed. 
Gall.  Paris),  53,  67,  110,  165, 

Cuspinian,  151,  161,  166,  190,  193 
Cyprian,  109,  110,  241 

Daniell  (on  Dante),  160 

Dante,  12,  16,  70,  11],  160,  182, 

Be  L' Hospital,  177 
Doctor  and  Student,  (79,  60,  81, 


Du  Chesne,  109,  220 

Eusebius,  53,  55,  105,  109,  177, 

Evagrius,  220 

Flor.  Hist.  (Flores  Historiarum),  15 
Froutmus,  19 

-  to  entries  not  by  Milton's  hand. 


Grldas,  114,  195 
Gilles  (Hist,  des  Vaudois),  53 
Girard  (B.)  Hist,  de  Franco,  53,  61, 
109,  110,  112,  183,  185,  186,  191 
Gower  (Tho.),  243 
Guicciardini,  182,  190 
Guillim,  191 
Gregorius,  Nyss.,  109 

HaiHan  (Hist,  de  la  France),  182 
Hardyng,  242 

Hayward  (Life  of  Ed.  VI.),  245 

Henry  of  Huntingdon,  109 

Historia  Miscella,  181 

Holinshed  (Ralph),  17,  19,  72,74, 
109,  110,  178,  179,  181,  182, 
183,  184,  185,  186,  220,  221, 
242,  243,  244 

Ignatius,  109 

Joyius  (Paulus),  13,  181,  220,  242, 
247  (Hist,  sui  temporis,  fol.  1578) 

Justinian:  The  Institutes,  113,  179, 
182,  190 

Justin  Martyr,  109,  182 

Jus  Grajco  -  Romanum  (see  Leun- 
clavius),  109,  112 

Lactantius,  4,  5,  14,  18,  178,  241 
Lambard,  (  Wm),  Archeionomia,  179, 

Leo  Afer  (ed.  Lugd.),  57 
Leunclavius,    (Jo)    (Juris  Gnvco- 

Romani  tarn  canonici  quam  civilis 

feomi  duo.  fol.  Franofort,  1590), 

109,  112,  182 

CAM  I).  SOC, 


Lilio,  Gregorio  Giraldo,  189 
Lncanus;  Pliarsalia,  199 

Machiavelli  (Nic.),  Arte  di  guerra, 
177,  182.  Discorsi,  (146,)  (185,) 
(195,)  (197,)  (198,)  (242,)  (243,) 
(245,)  (246) 

Malmesbury  (William  of),  14,  53, 
72,  184,  185 

Matthseus  Monachus,  112 

Matthew  Paris,  109 

Martyr,  Peter,  185 

Moryson  (Fynes),  (58) 

Nicephorus  Grcgoras,  181,220,240. 
NicetasChomates,fol.ed.  Paris,  (249) 

Ovid's  Metamorphoses,  (249) 

Plautus,  (249) 
Procopius,  151 ,  230 
Prudcntius,  191 
Purchas  (Samuel),  13,  57 

Raleigh  (Sir  W.),  Hist.of  the  World, 

Rivetus,  160,  188 

Savanarola,  179 
Schichard,  186 
Sclden  (John)  109,  110 
Sessel  (Claude),  186,  242 
Sidney  (Sir  P.),  Arcadia,  16,  17. 
187,  188 

Sigonius,  (19,  181,)  182,  183,220, 

210  (fol.  Franc!'.  1591 ) 
Sinibaldus,  116 

66  A  COMMONF] 

Sicidan,  18,  55,  76,  181,  185,  243, 

244,  246  j 
Smith  (Sir  Tho:),  182,  185 
Socrates,  53,  55,  61,  109,  111,  151, 

Sozomen,  109 

Speed's  Chronicle,  53,  72,  74,  109, 

1  GO,  179,  180, 183,  185,  186,  187,  1 

220,  221,  242,  245 
Spenser  (Edm.),  188,  242 
Stow  (John),  15,  57,  72,  109,  179, 

180,  181,  184,   185,  220,  242 

(Annals,  fol.  Loud.  1613) 
Sulpicins  Seyerus,  150,  182 

Tasso  (Torq.)}  (71) 

Tassoni,  189 

Tertulliau  (ed.  Rigalt.),  4,  13,  181, 

Theodoritus,  53,  243 
Theophrastus,  20 

Thomasinus  (Life  of  Petrarch),  189 
Thuanus  (t.  e.  Be  Thou),  14,  17,  53, 


184,  185,  186,  188,  244  (5  vols. 

fol.  1620) 
Trident,  Hist,  Ooncii.  ed.  Loud.,  109, 

1  12,  179,  184,  189,  244 

Villani  (Gian.),  12 
Yirgilius;  JEneid.,  (249) 



■References  to  some  Places  in  Milton's  Works  where  he 
has  utilised  entries  in  the  commonplace  book. 

[i.]  p.  13.    The  people  saith  Malnisbury  learned  of  the  Danes 

drunk'ness.  Hist,  of  Brit.,  Edgar,  p.  512.  Hardee  mite  ....  while 
he  was  drinking  fell  down  speechless,  and  so  dying,  &c.  He  was  it 
seems  a  great  lover  of  good  cheer,  sitting  at  table  four  times  a  day. 
Hist,  of  Brit ,  Hardecnnte,  p.  553. 

[ii.]  p,  53.  See  The  likeliest  means  to  remove  hirelings  out  of  the 
Church,  p.  433. 

[iii.]  p.  58.    "  That  notorious  ribald  of  Arezzo  .  .  .  ".  whom  Henry  VIII. 

named  in  merriment  his  Yicar  of  Hell."    Speech  for  the  liberty  of 

unlicensed  printing,  p.  108. 
[iv.]  p.  72.    Edwin  ....  by  the  due  administration  of  Justice  wrought 

such  peace  over  all  his  territories,  that  from  sea  to  sea  man  or  woman. 

might  have  travelled  in  safety.    Hist,  of  Brit.  p.  519. 
[v.]  p.  72.    Thieves  and  robbers  he  (Edgar)  rooted  almost  out  of  the 

land.    Hist,  of  Brit.  p.  5-12. 
[vi  ]  p.  73.    Milton  tells  this  story  at  length  in  the  Hist,  of  Brit.  p.  539. 
[vii.]  p.  74.    Hist,  of  Brit,  p.  5-12. 
[viii.]  p.  75.    Hist,  of  Brit.  p.  552. 

[ix.]  p.  76*.  After  mentioning  Luther  being  cited  before  Charles  V.  i<> 
answer  for  his  books  and  refusing  to  retract,  as  told  by  Sleidan,  and 
commending  Luther's  righteous  anger,  Milton  says  "that  the  spirit  of 
God  ....  when  he  would  reprove  any  fault  severely  ....  abstains  not 
from  some  words  not  civil  at  other  times  to  be  spoken."  And  a  little 
further  on  "  indignation  against  men  and  their  actions  notoriously  bad. 
hath  leave  and  authority  ofttinics  to  utter  such  words  and  phrases,  - 
in  common  talk  were  not  so  mannerly  to  use."  Apology  for  Sniectym- 
rmns,  p.  84. 

[ixa].  p.  109.    Reformation  in  England,  p.  8. 

[x.]  p.  112.  The  Popes  of  Borne  perceiving  the  great  revenue  and  high 
authority  it  would  give  them  even  over  princes  to  have  the  judging  and 
deciding  of  such  a  main  consequence  in  the  life  of  man  as  divorce; 
wrought  so,  &c  by  which  means  they  subjected  that  ancient  an  I 



[x.]  p.  112.  The  Popes  of  Rome  perceiving  the  great  revenue  and  high 
authority  it  would  give  them  even  over  princes  to  have  the  judging  and 
deciding  of  such  a  main  consequence  in  the  life  of  man  as  was  divorce ; 
wrought  so,  &c.  ....  by  which  means  they  subjected  that  ancient  and 
naturally  domestic  prerogative  to  an  external  and  unbefitting  judicature. 
Doctrine  and  Discipline  of  Divorce.    Cap.  21. 

[xi.]  p.  112.  These  references  are  worked  up  in  "Exposition  in  the 
four  chief  places  in  Scripture  which  treat  of  nullities  in  Marriage," 
f.  210.    See  also  Doctrine  and  Discipline  of  Divorce,  cap.  8,  f.  132. 

[xii.]  p.  116.    See  "  Exposition  on  the  four  chief  places,"  &c  p.  185. 

[xiii.]  p.  1 50.  See  The  likeliest  means  to  remove  Hirelings  out  of  the 
Church,  p.  434. 

[xiv.]  p.  179.  For  a  remark  against  Law  French,  see  On  Education, 
p.  99. 

[xv.]  p.  179.  He  (OfTa)  granted,  saith  Huntingdon,  a  perpetual  tribute 
to  the  Pope  out  of  every  house  in  his  kingdom  for  yielding  perhaps  to 
translate  the  primacy  of  Canterbury  to  Litchfield  in  his  own  dominions. 
Hist,  of  Engl,  book  4,  p.  527. 

[xvi.]  p.  179.    See  The  Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates,  p.  233. 

[xvii.]  p.  180.    Hist,  of  Brit.  p.  555. 

[xviii.]  p.  182.    Observations  upon  the  Articles  of  Peace,  p.  263. 

[xix.]  p.  185.    See  The  Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates,  237. 

[xx.]  p.  185.    This  passage  from  Sir  Thomas  Smith  is  quoted  in  The 

Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates,  p.  237. 
[xxi.]  p.  185.    Ibid.  p.  237. 

[xxii.]  p.  185.  Ibid.  p.  238.  But  here  Milton  cites  De  Thou  instead 
of  Buchanan. 

[xxiii.]  p.  185.    And  the  Commons  requested  to  have  judgment  decreed 

against  him,  that  the  realm  might  not  be  endangered.    Ibid.  p.  237. 
[xxiv.]  p.  185.    Ibid.  p.  237. 

[xxv.]  p.  185.    Observations  on  the  Articles  of  Peace,  p.  265. 
[xxvi.]  p.  186.    The  Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates,  p.  233. 
[xxvii.]  p.  188.    Ibid.  p.  238,  citing  Buchanan, 
[xxviii.]  p.  189.    Doctrine  and  Discipline  of  Divorce,  cap.  5,  p.  141. 
[xxix.]  p.  191.    Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates,  p.  237. 
[xxx.]  p.  195.    Id.  p.  237. 



xxxi.  ]  p.  220.  Hist,  of  Brit.  p.  553. 

xxxii.  ]  p.  220  Ibid.  p.  551. 

xxxiii.  ]  p.  242.  Ibid.  p.  541. 

xxxiv.  ]  p.  244.  Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates,  .p.  238. 

xxxv.  ]  p.  244.  Answer  to  Eu-w^  Baa-iXuti?,  p.  305. 

xxxvi.  ]  p.  246.  Ibid.